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Anonymity in Driving Behavior. Shawn Bray, Zehna Gilliam and Skye Simonelli San Diego Mesa College San Diego, CA. O bjective. To test the effects of anonymity on driving behaviors and to better understand which factors may contribute to other unlawful behaviors. hypothesis.

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anonymity in driving behavior

Anonymity in Driving Behavior

Shawn Bray, Zehna Gilliam and Skye Simonelli

San Diego Mesa College

San Diego, CA.

o bjective
Objective

To test the effects of anonymity on driving behaviors and to better understand which factors may contribute to other unlawful behaviors.

slide3

hypothesis

Drivers in automobiles with tinted windows are less likely to make a complete stop at four way stop intersections than drivers in automobiles without tinted windows.

slide5

Key Terms

Observational Study: Researchers observe behaviors under the conditions in which they naturally occur

Anonymity: The quality or state of being unknown

Disinhibition: A lack of restraint caused by outside factor such as drugs, alcohol, or rioting

Anti-Social Behavior: A person has a long-term pattern of manipulating, exploiting, or violating the rights of others

literature review1
Literature Review

Zimbardo’s (1969) famous electric shock study on the relationship between anonymity and immoral behavior.

Ed Diener’s (1976) Halloween study on the effects of being less identifiable by personal information.

Andrew Silke’s (2003) analysis of attacks in Northern Ireland, anonymous criminals committed more violent attacks.

literature review2
Literature Review

Singer’s (1965) study on less identifiable people being more likely to conform in the Asch (1951) situation.

According to Zhong & others (2010), “Even dimmed lighting or wearing sunglasses increases people’s perceived anonymity, and thus their willingness to cheat or behave selfishly.”

Patricia Ellison’s (1995) test on anonymity’s effect upon incivility amongst drivers.

methods1
Methods
  • Observational Study
    • inconspicuous and unobtrusive
  • n = 400
    • 200 tinted cars
    • 200 un-tinted cars
  • 3 different data collection locations
  • Random sample and representative
  • Must make a complete 3 second stop
methods2
Methods

Only cars approaching from the North and South directions

Tally in corresponding section of “Stopped/No Stop” and “Tint/No-Tint” section of observation chart

One researcher at each separate location

Selected data collection start time

Every other car observed

Car must have back tires behind limit line

materials used

Stopped

No Stop

I

III

Tint

II

IIII

No Tint

Materials Used
inclusion criteria
Inclusion Criteria

One researcher at each separate location

Selected data collection start time

Every other car observed

Car must have back tires behind limit line

observational definitions and chart

Stopped

No Stop

I

III

Tint

IIII

II

No Tint

Observational Definitions and Chart

Observational Definitions:

Tint/Stop: TS

Tint/No Stop: TNS

No-Tint/Stop: NS

No-Tint/No Stop: NN

observational location one
Observational Location: one

Oceanside, CA – 2:30-3:30pm

observational location two
Observational Location: two

Encanto, CA – 5:30-7:30pm

observational location three
Observational location: three

University City, CA – 11:30-1:30pm

exclusion criteria
Exclusion Criteria

Partially rolled down windows

Completely rolled down windows

Automobiles without doors

Convertibles

Cars yielding to pedestrians

results
Results

Stop: 165

No Stop: 235

results1
Results
  • Tinted Windows:
    • 35% did make complete stop
    • 65% did not make a complete stop
  • Un-Tinted Windows:
    • 47.5% did make complete stop
    • 52.5% did not make a complete stop
discussion
Discussion
  • We supported our hypothesis that drivers of car with tinted windows are less likely to make a complete stop at an intersection.
  • We failed to reject our alternative hypothesis.
  • We have acknowledged that the intent of reckless drivers may not be malicious.
  • Some confounding variables we found:
    • Degree of window tint
    • Contrast in obedience in different socioeconomic areas
discussion1
Discussion
  • Other future studies will include relationships between window tint and:
    • Medical conditions
    • Safety concerns
    • Style preference
  • Overall, we realize that while Deindividuation may not be the cause of getting window tintit is, however, the result.
references
References

Anonymity. (2009). In The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Retrieved from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/anonymity

Berkowitz, L. Some determinants of impulsive aggression: Role of mediated associations with reinforcements for aggression. Psychological Review, 1974, 81, 165-176.

Blais MA, Smallwood P, Groves JE, Rivas-Vazquez RA. Personality and personality disorders. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum JF, Fava M, Biederman J, Rauch SL, eds. Massachusetts General Hospital Comprehensive Clinical Psychiatry. 1st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2008: chap 39.

references1
References

Disinhibition. (n.d.). In Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition. Retrieved from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/anonymity

Festinger, L., Pepitone, A., & Newcomb, T. (1952). Some consequences of deindividuation in a group. Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 47, 382-389.

Johnson, R. D., & Downing, L. L. (1979). Deindividuation and valence of cues: Effects on prosocialand antisocial behavior. Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology, 37(9), 1532-1538. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.37.9.1532.

Li, Brian, "The Theories of Deindividuation" (2010). CMC Senior Theses. Paper 12. http://scholarship.claremont.edu/cmc_theses/12

Myers, D. G. (2013). Social Psychology (11th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

references2
References
  • Observational Study. (2014). In Stat Trek. Retrieved from http://stattrek.com/statistics/dictionary.aspx?definition=observational_study
  • Singer, J.E., Brush, C.A., and Lublin, S.C. (1965). Some aspects of Deindividuation: Identification and Conformity. Journal of Experimental and Social Psychology, 1, 356-378.
  • Zimbardo, P. G. The human choice: Individuation, reason and order versus deindividuation, impulse, and chaos. In W. J. Arnold, & D. Levinc (Eds.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation (Vol. 18). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1970.
  • All images are Microsoft clipart or Google Maps screenshots.