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Wagner Vendrame , Ph.D. Associate Professor Tropical Research and Education Center IFAS – UF Homestead, FL PowerPoint Presentation
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Wagner Vendrame , Ph.D. Associate Professor Tropical Research and Education Center IFAS – UF Homestead, FL. What is Jatropha?. Family Euphorbiaceae Genus Jatropha : 170 species Jatropha curcas L. Physic Nut, Barbados Nut, Purging Nut, Curcas Bean

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slide1

Wagner Vendrame, Ph.D.

Associate Professor

Tropical Research and Education Center

IFAS – UF Homestead, FL

what is jatropha
What is Jatropha?
  • Family Euphorbiaceae
  • Genus Jatropha: 170 species
  • Jatropha curcas L.
  • Physic Nut, Barbados Nut, Purging Nut, Curcas Bean
  • Small tree or large shrub, 12-15ft tall
  • Perennial
slide3
Diversity in the

genus

Jatropha

slide4

B

C

A

D

E

Diversity in the genus Jatropha; botanical illustration of Jatropha curcas (A); J. grossidentata (B), J. excisa (C), J. clavuligera (D), and J. weddeliana. Photos and illustration by B. Dehgan.

slide5
a. flowering branch

b. bark

c. leaf venation

d. pistillate flower

e. staminate flower

f. cross-section of

immature fruit

g. fruits

h. longitudinal

section of fruits

i. seed

(a - c and f- i from

Aponte 1978; d and

e from Dehgan 1984)

(reprinted with

Permission, Heller 1996)

a female flowers b apical buds c petals sepals diadelphous stamen d anthers
a. female flowersb. apical budsc. petals, sepals, diadelphous stamend. anthers

e. ovary and nectar glands

f. electron microscope vision of triple seed setting in the fruit

(Source: Prakash et al., 2007)

where can it be grown in fl
Where can it be grown in FL?
  • Cultivated in the tropics as living fence
  • Zones 9-11
  • Full sun
  • Drought tolerant
  • Marginal soils
  • Susceptible to severe frosts
slide9

J. curcas belt

oil palm belt

J. curcas belt

Global indication of the most suitable climates for J. curcas (30° N; 35° S)

Claims and Facts on Jatropha curcas (Jongschaap et al., 2007)

slide10

Renewable Energy

Jatropha Crop

Use in Vehicles

Biofuel Production

Bioenergy Potential

slide11

Jatropha curcas

Fruits

Whole Plant

Leaves

Bark

Erosion control

Hedge plant

Shelter plant for

other crops

Organic fertilizer

Rodent repellent

Medicinal uses

Fuel

Mulch

Biogas

Medicinal uses

Seeds

Husks

Shells

Kernels

Kernels

Monoalkylesters

Biodiesel + Glycerin

Oil (Biolipid)

Triglycerides

Seed Cake or

Expeller

Cosmetics

Soap production

Medicinal uses

Biopesticides

Animal feed

Organic fertilizer

Rodent repellent

BIODIESEL

Uses for Jatropha curcas (modified from Heller 1996).

slide12

B

A

A. Bielenberg ram press for oil extraction from J. curcas seeds

B. Soap production from J. curcas oil

C. Perkins engine with generator converted to run on Jatropha oil

C

Photos courtesy of R. K. Henning

jatropha s potential the hype
Jatropha’s Potential – The Hype
  • Non-food alternative energy crop
  • Perennial crop
  • Marginal soils and waste lands
  • Little or no input - low nutrient requirements
  • Drought resistance – low water use
  • High oil yields
    • High oil content in seeds
    • High quality oil
jatropha s potential the hope
Jatropha’s Potential – The Hope
  • Non-food alternative energy crop
  • Perennial crop
  • Marginal soils and waste lands
  • Little or no input - low nutrient requirements
  • Drought resistance – low water use
  • High oil yields
    • High oil content in seeds
    • High quality oil
jatropha s potential the hope1
Jatropha’s Potential – The Hope
  • Non-food alternative energy crop
  • Perennial crop
  • Marginal soils and waste lands
  • Little or no input - low nutrient requirements
  • Drought resistance – low water use
  • High oil yields
    • High oil content in seeds
    • High quality oil
jatropha s potential the hope2
Jatropha’s Potential – The Hope
  • Non-food alternative energy crop
  • Perennial crop
  • Marginal soils and waste lands
  • Little or no input - low nutrient requirements
  • Drought resistance – low water use
  • High oil yields
    • High oil content in seeds
    • High quality oil
marginal soils and waste lands
Marginal soils and waste lands
  • Semi-arid and arid conditions
    • Marginal soil reclamation
    • Nutrient recycling
    • Reduction of erosion and desertification
    • Increase soil structure
  • Tropical humid areas
jatropha s potential the hope3
Jatropha’s Potential – The Hope
  • Non-food alternative energy crop
  • Perennial crop
  • Marginal soils and waste lands
  • Little or no input - low nutrient requirements
  • Drought resistance – low water use
  • High oil yields
    • High oil content in seeds
    • High quality oil
low nutrient requirements
Low nutrient requirements
  • Low soil fertility limits growth and production
  • Fertilization improves yield:
    • Plant height
    • Leaf area index
    • Total aboveground dry matter
    • Seed yield
    • Oil yield
  • Crop density - competition
jatropha s potential the hope4
Jatropha’s Potential – The Hope
  • Non-food alternative energy crop
  • Perennial crop
  • Marginal soils and waste lands
  • Little or no input - low nutrient requirements
  • Drought resistance – low water use
  • High oil yields
    • High oil content in seeds
    • High quality oil
low water requirement
Low water requirement
  • Little known on water use and water use efficiency (as a crop)
  • Potential Evapotranspiration (PET) vs. Actual Evapotranspiration (AET)
  • Plant transpiration and soil evaporation
  • Soil properties: depth, WHC, organic matter content
  • Root system
jatropha s potential the hope5
Jatropha’s Potential – The Hope
  • Non-food alternative energy crop
  • Perennial crop
  • Marginal soils and waste lands
  • Little or no input - low nutrient requirements
  • Drought resistance – low water use
  • High oil yields
    • High oil content in seeds
    • High quality oil
dry matter of j curcas
Dry matterof J. curcas

Claims and Facts on Jatropha curcas (Jongschaap et al., 2007)

energy content in j curcas
Energy content in J. curcas

Claims and Facts on Jatropha curcas (Jongschaap et al., 2007)

high oil yields
High Oil Yields
  • Seed:
    • Hull (shell): 35% F.W.
    • Kernel: 65% F.W.
  • Kernel (99% of oil):
    • 58% oil
    • 42% meal (20-25% protein)
  • Total oil from seed: 37.7%
high oil quality
High Oil Quality
  • Good quality for burning, cooking, lighting, biodiesel
  • > viscosity than diesel (53 vs. 8 cSt, 30 °C)
  • Cetane number: 23-41
    • cottonseed (35-40); rapeseed (30-36); groundnut (30-41); sunflower (29-37)
  • Toxicity: phorbol esters and curcins
  • Suitable for transesterification
  • No sulphur dioxide (SO2)
challenges
Challenges
  • Performance in Florida
  • Pests, diseases
  • Yields
  • Range for commercial growth
  • Increased yield practices
  • Harvesting
  • Economic assessment

RESEARCH!!!

acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
  • CALS – UF
  • FDACS
  • Vecenergy-BIDA, the Energy Division of the Vecellio Group