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Thoughtful Education. Dr. Harvey Silver Joyce Jackson Green River Educational Cooperative May 2, 2006. Thoughtful Questions. What is a strategy? What are strategies good for? How do you acquire them?

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thoughtful education

Thoughtful Education

Dr. Harvey Silver

Joyce Jackson

Green River Educational Cooperative

May 2, 2006

thoughtful questions
Thoughtful Questions
  • What is a strategy?
  • What are strategies good for?
  • How do you acquire them?
  • What strategy has produced the greatest gain in students’ academic performance on state assessments?
  • How can I put the strategy to work in my classroom and throughout my school?
slide4

Long Term Memory

Short Term

Memory

Working Memory

Multiple exposure

Variety of strategies

Intensity of thought

Is this important?

Will I use this?

Is it worth the risk?

classroom instruction that works
Classroom Instruction that Works

Marzano, Classroom Instruction that Works

what is a strategy
What is a strategy?
  • What are some strategies you have used in your life?
  • What is a synonym for the word strategy?
  • How do you make strategies work?
  • So what is a strategy?
slide7

What Can Style Teach Us About a Strategy?

Is it a recipe?

Is it a set of principles?

Is it a relationship with people?

Is it a process?

A strategy is a decision making device for carrying out a plan of action.

why do we need teaching strategies
Why do we need Teaching Strategies?

Strategies……

  • teach content;
  • increase Depth of Knowledge;
  • help manage instruction;
  • teaches independence;
  • address diversity;
  • help students develop life-long learning skills; and
  • shift the focus from planning a lesson to planning for learning.
why might a teacher be reluctant to use strategies
Why might a teacher be reluctant to use strategies?
  • slows down coverage;
  • increases teacher awareness of what students know and don’t know;
  • makes teachers and learners more aware of learning gaps;
  • every strategy is a discipline—it takes time to learn.
slide11

A mountain and its reflection

How similar!

How different!

How Does a Strategy Grow?

A Focus on Compare and Contrast

kinds of knowledge
Kinds of Knowledge
  • Declarative: Describe the strategy and its purposes.
  • Procedural: Use the strategy on demand.
  • Contextual or Conditional: Analyze a situation an determine when it appropriate to meet the needs of learning.
the most important element in improving professional practice
The Most Important Element in Improving Professional Practice
  • Reconsider--Question Yourself and

Challenge Assumptions

  • Reconnect-- Trends, Data and Your

Own Practices

  • Reframe-- See the World in a New and Different Way
three kinds of intelligences
Three Kinds of Intelligences
  • Neural
  • Experiential
  • Reflective

Innate, birth

Acquired from Personal Experiences

Control System

think about sometimes you have used comparison in your classroom
Think about sometimes you haveused comparison in your classroom

What are some lessons or situation where you asked your students to compare?

Why did you use comparison in these situations?

What are some of the strengths or some weaknesses when you used comparison as a strategy?

4 goals of compare contrast
4 Goals of Compare & Contrast
  • Memory
  • Higher Order Thinking
  • Comprehension
  • Writing in the Content Areas
what is comparison for
What is comparison for?
  • It is the foundation for serious thought;
  • With building the ability to recognize similarities and differences we built:

- the capacity for classifying;

- the thinking skills necessary for analyzing;

- the ability for interpreting and using data appropriately.

why students struggle with compare and contrast
Why students struggle with compare and contrast?
  • They cannot access the information—it is not in their memory.
  • They do not attend to the important attributes and give their attention to details that have little importance.
  • They see it as a right or wrong answer instead of an analysis process because it is used primarily as assessment.
  • They do comparisons as an ends to itself, not as a tool for developing deeper understanding.
invisible information
Invisible Information

What is the invisible information you teach in your content area?

democracy

feudalism

respiration

community

gravity

confusable information
Confusable Information

Do I use a comma or semicolon?

What is the difference between a simile and a metaphor?

Osmosis? Diffusion?

What is confusable information your students must know?

neglectable information
Neglectable Information

What are some examples of neglectable information you teach?

learning from the student s work
Learning from the student’s work.

Blue Binder : Pillar I Page 32

What can we learn from this student about how his teacher used comparison to

help him become an independent thinker?`

hidden skill
Hidden Skill
  • How might teachers use comparison if the goal is to empower students to become thoughtful users of comparisons and to be able to conduct an independent comparison?
slide26

Four Phases of the Compare and Contrast Strategy

  • Description
  • Comparison
  • Conclusion
  • Application (Synthesis)
description
Description

What is the purpose

What are the sources?

How will I help students identify criteria?

phase i description
Phase I: Description
  • Select the items to compare.
  • Identify the criteria or characteristics that would focus examination of the items.
  • Describe each item separately.

On one hand there is… and on the other hand there is…

criteria

comparison
Comparison

What visual organizer will I use to help students compare?

phase ii comparison
Phase II: Comparison
  • Select a graphic organizer.
  • Identify similarities and differences.

Y

conclusion
Conclusion

What discussion questions will I use to develop students thinking?

Are the concepts more alike or different?

  • What causes the differences and what are these effects?

What can you generalize from the similarities?

phase iii conclusion
Phase III: Conclusion
  • Ask questions such as:

Are the items more similar or more different?

What might account for the differences? What might account for the simililarities?

What new ideas, conclusions or generalizations can you now make?

application
Application

How will I assess students’ understanding?

  • What can students do to demonstrate their understanding?

What criteria will students use to evaluate their work?

phase iv application synthesis
Phase IV: Application (Synthesis)
  • Identify other examples of each item.
  • Create a product or complete a task that applies new learning.
a sample lesson compare and contrast different times different households
A Sample Lesson: Compare and ContrastDifferent Times, Different Households

How are households similar and different?

peer reading
PEER Reading
  • A 17th Century Father Talks to His Daughter
  • Father is Coming (19th Century Song)
description phase
Description Phase

17th Century Criteria 19th Century

Father's Role

Daughter’s Role

Nature of Home

Nature of the World

comparison phase
Comparison Phase

Similarities

17th Century Differences 19th Century Differences

conclusion phase
Conclusion Phase
  • Are the two homes more alike or different?
  • What do you suspect to be some causes for the differences?
  • What generalizations can you make about the role of fathers and daughters from these examples? about families?
application40
Application
  • Create a want ad for a 21st century father.
  • Make sure you include responsibilities and benefits of the role in your ad.
compare and contrast
Compare and Contrast

Compare and Contrast in Math

Samuel is running late for a meeting in Cortville, which is 40 miles down Route 27. Samuel is supposed to be to his meeting by 4:00. It is now 3:15. the speed limit on Route 27 is 35 miles per hour, how late will he be?

Samuel is running late again. This time his meeting is down Breward Skyway. The meeting is 40 miles away and it is now 3:15. If Samuel needs to be at his meeting by 4:00, how fast will he have to drive?

description phase42
Description Phase

Problem 1 Problem 2

What needs to be found out?

What does the diagram look like?

What is the answer to the problem?

How did you go about solving the problem?

comparison phase43
Comparison Phase

Problem 1 Problem 2

Differences Differences

Similarities

conclusion phase44
Conclusion Phase
  • Develop a brief that explains your findings. Be sure to discuss what causes the differences in the approach you take going about solving each problem.
application phase
Application Phase
  • Create two problems like Problem 1 and Problem 2.
  • Since we noticed that Problem 1 asked you to solve for time and Problem 2 asked you to solve for rate, create two more problems that are looking for you to solve for distance.
four east steps planning a compare and contrast lesson
Four East Steps: Planning a Compare and Contrast Lesson

Step 1: Identify the topic, resources, and what students will compare.

Step 2: Identify the purpose of the comparison.

Step 3: Select the criteria for the comparison .

Step 4: Develop a synthesis task

slide47

Step 1: Topic Step 2: Purpose for Comparison

Step 3: Select Criteria

Step 4: Develop a Synthesis Task

four comparisons that work

Four Comparisons that Work

Take One: Compare and Contrast

Take Two: Classification

Take Three: Metaphorical Teaching

Take Four: Analogies

inductive learning
Inductive Learning

Gathermaterials for grouping;

Review materials thoughtfully;

Organize items into groups;

Use labels to describe what each group members have in common;

Place items in as many different groups as possible;

Search for possible inferences, hypotheses, or conjectures and the evidence to test them.

examine the data
Examine the Data

diamonds beggar kind spiders selfish man

chimney mean talking dinner digging

stupid apple tree old woman helping treasure

window poor eat forest selfish

search share old man listened food

group and label
Group and Label

Kind

share

helping

listened

considerate

regrouping and organizing
Regrouping and Organizing

kind

share

helping

listened

selfish

stupid

mean

How can groups be chunked together?

considerate

inconsiderate

ways of behaving

predictions
Predictions

Predictions

A beggar digs for treasure.

A kind old man searches for diamond treasure.

An old man and woman are begging for food.

A selfish man is mean to a beggar.

the story of spiders and diamonds
The Story of Spiders and Diamonds
  • Testing Predictions
  • Which of your predictions were the best, why?
take three metaphors
Take Three: Metaphors

The teacher identifies

FOCUS and TARGET

and ask students to discuss

the similarities in the

STRUCTURE

How is an improper

fraction

a politician?

The teacher identifies

FOCUS

The American Revolution

THE STRUCTURE

Forces generating pressure—pressure builds up---more forces create more pressure

AN EXPLANTION

Ask students to create an explain

A TARGET

The student creates

The FOCUS and the TARGET

And the explanation of the

STRUCTURE

take four analogies
Take Four: Analogies

Step 1:

Think of the first pair of linked comparisons as your FOCUS, the relationship you want the students to think about.

an electron is to its nucleus

Step 2:

The second pair is the TARGET, a different pair that share the same relationship as the first pair.

AS a _____ is to its planet.

slide58

Professional Development in our school this year was to the faculty

AS

___________ is to ________________.

Focus

TARGET

why similarities and differences matter
Why Similarities and Differences Matter….

Because…

  • Two ideas linked together by similarities and differences last longer than two ideas alone.
  • Comparisons make the invisible visible, the confusable clear, and the nelgectable unavoidable.
  • Similarities create connections and differences create distinctions.
  • Comparisons deepen understanding and put knowledge to use.
what the research revealed selected research results for identifying similarities and differences
What the Research revealed:Selected Research Results for Identifying Similarities and Differences

20

1.76

46

what the research revealed
What the Research revealed:
  • Presenting students with explicit guidance in identifying similarities and differences enhances students’ understanding of and ability to use knowledge.
  • Asking students to independently identify similarities and differerences enhances students’ understanding of and ability to use knowledge.
  • Representing similarities and differences in graphic or symbolic form enhances students’ understanding of and ability to use knowledge.
  • Identification of similarities and differences can be accomplished in a variety of ways. The identification of similarities and differences is a highly robust activity.
decision making
Decision Making

Think about the dashboard of your car.

Make a list of all the things that are on your dashboard.

Now, think about why they are there.

Compare your list with others, what important similarities do you find.

thoughtful curriculum design
Thoughtful Curriculum Design

Like a car, a unit design should have a dashboard.

What are the important guides that should direct decision making when planning Thoughtful Units of Study?

slide64

Hidden Skills

The Dashboard:

Compare and Contrast

Research Base

Read & Study

Collect/Organize ideas

through note-making

Make sense of abstract

academic vocabulary

Read/Interpret visuals

Identifying similarities and differences

Summarizing and note-taking

Reinforcing effort and providing recognition

Homework and practice

Nonlinguistic representations

Cooperative learning

Setting objectives and feedback

Generating and testing hypotheses

Cues, questions, and advanced organizers

Introduce

Reason & Analyze

Draw conclusions;

make/test inferences,

hypotheses, conjectures

Conduct comparisons

using criteria

Analyze demands of a

variety of questions

New Knowledge

Practice & Application

Reflection

Create & Communicate

Write clear, coherent

explanation

Write comfortably in

major nonfiction genres

Read and write about

two or more documents

Assessment

MASTERY

INTERPERSONAL

Success

Relationships

Reflect & Relate

Construct plans to address

questions and tasks

Use criteria and guidelines

to evaluate work

Control/alter mood or

impulsivity

Curiosity

Originality

SELF-EXPRESSIVE

UNDERSTANDING

Declarative

Procedural

Types of Knowledge

observing the work in action
Observing the Work in Action

Watch the video of Joanne and her third grade class. As you observe the episodes in the unit choose one of the panels on the dashboard to watch:

Blueprint

Diversity

Hidden Skills

Research Based

reflective dialogue with team
Reflective Dialogue With Team

Now that you have observed a teacher in action as she pulls the pieces together, have a conversation about what you observed and insights about Thoughtful Curriculum Writing.

slide67

Hidden Skills

The Dashboard:

Research Base

Read & Study

Collect/Organize ideas

through note-making

Make sense of abstract

academic vocabulary

Read/Interpret visuals

Identifying similarities and differences

Summarizing and note-taking

Reinforcing effort and providing recognition

Homework and practice

Nonlinguistic representations

Cooperative learning

Setting objectives and feedback

Generating and testing hypotheses

Cues, questions, and advanced organizers

Introduce

Reason & Analyze

Draw conclusions;

make/test inferences,

hypotheses, conjectures

Conduct comparisons

using criteria

Analyze demands of a

variety of questions

New Knowledge

Practice & Application

Reflection

Create & Communicate

Write clear, coherent

explanation

Write comfortably in

major nonfiction genres

Read and write about

two or more documents

Assessment

MASTERY

INTERPERSONAL

Success

Relationships

Reflect & Relate

Construct plans to address

questions and tasks

Use criteria and guidelines

to evaluate work

Control/alter mood or

impulsivity

Curiosity

Originality

SELF-EXPRESSIVE

UNDERSTANDING

Declarative

Procedural

Types of Knowledge