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THE REFORMATIONS. By Lisa M. Lane. Constructive Criticism: The Christian Humanists. St. Thomas More. Erasmus.

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The reformations



Lisa M. Lane

The reformations

Constructive Criticism:

The Christian Humanists

St. Thomas More


And for popes, that supply the place of Christ, if they should endeavor to imitate His life, to wit His poverty, labor, doctrine, cross, and contempt of life, or should they consider what the name pope, that is father, or holiness, imports, who would live more disconsolate than themselves? or who would purchase that chair with all his substance? or defend it, so purchased, with swords, poisons, and all force imaginable?

-- Erasmus, In Praise of Folly (1509)

These are their religious principles, that the soul of man is immortal, and that God of his goodness has designed that it should be happy; and that he has therefore appointed rewards for good and virtuous actions, and punishments for vice, to be distributed after this life

- More, Utopia (1516)

Church abuses
Church Abuses

Worldly popes

Lucretia Borgia



an indulgence is a remission of the temporal punishment due to sin, the guilt of which has been forgiven

- New Advent Encyclopedia

The reformations

Ignorant Priests

Te ígitur, clementíssime Pater, per Jesum Christum Fílium tuum Dóminum nostrum súpplices rogámus ac pétimus (osculatur altare) uti accépta hábeas, et benedícas...

Wherefore, O most merciful Father, we humbly pray and beseech thee, through Jesus Christ thy Son, our Lord (he kisses the altar), that thou wouldst vouchsafe to receive and bless...

The reformations

Good Works


I meditated night and day on those words until at last, by the mercy of God, I paid attention to their context: "The justice of God is revealed in it, as it is written: 'The just person lives by faith.'" I began to understand that in this verse the justice of God is that by which the just person lives by a gift of God, that is by faith.

- Martin Luther





The reformations

Political and

Social Impact of


It has been the custom hitherto for men to bold us as their own property, which is pitiable enough, considering that Christ has delivered and redeemed us all, without exception, by the shedding of His precious blood, the lowly as well as the great. Accordingly, it is consistent with Scripture that we should be free and wish to be so.

- from the Twelve Articles of the Swabian Peasants 1525

The reformations

Protestant Expansion

Numerous sects

Calvinist Geneva

The reformations

2. Mary I

(r. 1553-58) Catholic, married Philip II of Spain

1. Edward VI

(d. 1553 at 15)

3.Elizabeth I

(r. 1558-1603)

The reformations

Catholic or Counter Reformation

In his hands I saw a long golden spear and at the end of the iron tip I seemed to see a point of fire. With this he seemed to pierce my heart several times so that it penetrated to my entrails. When he drew it out, I thought he was drawing them out with it and he left me completely afire with a great love for God.

- St. Teresa of Avila

Council of Trent (1545-63)

Index of Prohibited Books

The Inquisition



  • title-

  • alexander-

  • indulgences-

  • benefices-

  • priest-

  • mass-

  • Thomas More-

  • Erasmus-

  • Luther-

  • mass-

  • map of Germany-

  • map of religions-

  • Geneva-

  • Loyola-