SPCH 3402Spring 2005 Introduction to Interpersonal Communication
Exercise 1 • In 1-2 paragraphs, define Communication • Form Groups of 4-6 persons, share your definitions • As a group, formulate one definition of Communication
Defining Communication • Communication as Information Exchange • Communication as Creation of Meaning • Communication as Social Influence • Communication as Creation of Social Reality • Communication as Relationship
A simple Information Exchange Model Sender---->Message----> Receiver
A More Complex Information Exchange Model (Feedback) Receiver Sender Message (encoding) (decoding) Channel with Noise
Defining Communication as Information Exchange • Draws attention to the messages • Draws attention to communication channels • Draws attention to the role of interference (noise) and means of overcoming it • Draws attention to the processes of encoding and decoding • Draws attention to the role of feedback
Semantic Triangle Reference (Thought) Referent (Thing) Symbol (Word)
Denotative: the dictionary definition shared by speech community Connotative: associations a person has for the word highly idiosyncratic Meaning of Words
Defining Communication as Creating Meaning • Draws attention to the nature of symbols • Draws attention to the relationship between symbol and referent • Draws attention to processes that create shared meanings • Draws attention to negotiations about the meaning of ambiguous symbols
Defining Social Influence • Effecting (Attempting) changes in other’s: • Behaviors • Attitudes • Beliefs • Values
Defining Communication as Social Influence • Draws attention to the goals & intentions of communicators • Draws attention to the causes of behavior • Draws attention to the bases of beliefs, values, & attitudes • Draws attention to persuasive features of messages • Draws attention to resistance to influence
Social Reality • Those aspects of a person’s life-world whose existence and meaning is the result of a social process, usually the agreement of significant others (including self). • Social reality is not limited to socially created features of the life-world, but includes the perception of naturally occurring features as well.
Defining Communication as Creating Social Reality • Draws attention to the processes by which we create agreement among people • Draws attention to values, norms, & ethics • Draws attention to how we are perceived • Draws attention to how we perceive others and create reality for them
Relationship • Interdependence of Individuals • Psychologically • Emotional • Instrumental • Social
Defining Communication as Relationship • Draws attention to Interaction & Interpersonal Behavior • Draws attention to mutual Dependence • Draws attention to mutual Influence • Draws attention to relationship development
Defining Interpersonal Communication Interpersonal Communication is any interaction between two or more persons who exchange information, create meaning, and influence each other and who through this process create social reality for themselves and others and create and maintain relationships with each other.
Assignment: Speed Meeting • Form groups of four with people you do NOT know yet. • Meet each of you group members for 3 minutes each (TA will give times) • After meeting each, write down what you talked about with each member, what you learned about them, what they learned about you.
Axioms of the Interactional View • One cannot not communicate • Comm. is digital and analogical • Comm. = Content + Relationship • Relationship depends on Punctuation • Comm. is complementary or symmetrical
5 Misconceptions • Consistency • Simple Meaning • Communicator independence • Obvious causation • Finality
Social Penetration Theory • Relationship Growth = More Intimacy • Intimacy results from Self-Disclosure Increase Depths of Self-Disclosure Increase Breadth of Self-Disclosure • Motivation for Self-Disclosure is expected outcome (rewards-costs)
Self-Disclosure and Intimacy Intimate Relationship Non-Intimate Relationship
Four Stages of Exchange • Orientation - limited to public areas, no-evaluative, cautious • exploratory affective exchange - friendly & relaxed, some self-disclosure • affective exchange - open exploration of intimacy, high SD • stable exchange - high intimacy enables efficient communication
Social Exchange Theory(Thibaut & Kelly) • Terms O = Perceived Outcome CL = Expectation CLalt = Perceived Alternatives • Predictions about Self-Disclosure Satisfaction: compare O and CL Stability: compare O and CLalt
Johari Window(Joseph Luft & Harrington Ingham) Aspects of Self yes open hidden Known to Self unknown blind no no yes Known to Other
Dyadic Effect • Dyadic Effect: Observation that self-disclosure by one person is usually reciprocated by the other. Explanations: • Norm of Reciprocity • Attributions
Attributions for Self-Disclosure • Cause for SD: • Self • Other • Relationship (situation?) • Valence: • Positive • Neutral • Negative
Attributions and Reciprocation Attribution Positive Neutral Negative - SD + SD +/- SD Self +/- SD + SD - SD Other Relationship + SD +/- SD - SD
Factors Affecting Attributions • Timing of Self-Disclosure • Social Rules & Norms • Relationship History • Salient Situational Factors • Content of Self-Disclosure
Communication & Relationship Development I • Narrow Broad • Public Personal • Stylized Unique • Difficult Efficient
Communication & Relationship Development II • Rigid Flexible • Awkward Smooth • Hesitant Spontaneous • Judgment suspended Judgment given
Partner Interdependence • Partner affect each other in all eight behaviors • Effect can be symmetrical or complementary • Both partners determine relationship development
Stage Models – a few comments • Descriptive – what patterns tend to happen. • Not evaluative – do not judge “good” or bad.” • Generalizable – apply to all types of relationships. • Behaviors not limited to certain stages • Related to the 8 dimensions of communication
Coming Together Initiating Experimenting Intensifying Integrating Bonding Coming Apart Differentiating Circumscribing Stagnating Avoiding Terminating Stage Theory of Relationship Development
Initiating – 1st Stage • Fairly narrow • “Pre-communication” and greetings • Influenced by • Previous experience • Time since last greeting • Time allowed for interaction • Situational/normative constraints
Pick-up Lines Cunningham (1989) • 3 Types of pick-up lines • Direct – straightforward, to the point • “Want to dance?” • Innocuous – used to start conversation; doesn’t look like pick-up line. • “Do you know the band?” • Cute-flippant – trite, overused, funny, and/or obnoxious • “Nice shirt. Can I talk you out of it?”
What works? • Women usually use innocuous • Men use more direct/innocuous • Men use cute/flippant more than women • For men approaching women, direct/innocuous worked the best. • For women approaching men, every type worked. • Why do you think this was the case?
Experimenting – 2nd Stage • Goals are to • Learn unknown information • Find a common area for discussion • Very broad stage – remain here with most people (i.e. acquaintances) • Think about your speed meetings the first week of class.
Small talk • Occurs in the experimenting stage • Superficial & conventional communication characterized by breadth, not depth. • Functions: • Useful in satisfying inclusion needs • Friendship auditions • Finding integrating topics • Reducing uncertainty
Intensifying – 3rd Stage Intimacy intensifies • Verbal/Nonverbal comm. becomes more informal. • Use of collective pronouns and idioms • Expressed commitment • Permeability of space • Typically a very long stage
Personal IdiomsBell et al. (1987) • Words, gestures or phrases that have a unique meaning in close relationships. • Serve four functions • Foster unity/define a relationship • Sentimental value • Private displays of affection • Help get over awkward points in the relationship – ex: making up!
Integrating – 4th Stage • Treated as a couple by social circles • Intimacy trophies • Similar dress • Common property • Synchronizing behavior
Bonding – 5th Stage • Commitment formalized by public rituals • Marriage, engagement • Main difference from integrating is social support for the relationship • Makes the relationship harder to end
Differentiating – 1st Stage • Uncoupling: • Less “we”, more “you” and “I” • Focus on differences • More overt & frequent conflict
Circumscribing – 2nd Stage • Breadth and Depth of talk decreases • “Let’s just drop it.” or “I don’t want to get into that.” • Increased formality / public performances • Reduced “echo responses” • “I love you” – “I love you too” • Relational twister
Stagnating – 3rd Stage • Communication comes to a standstill • Ex: Parent-child relationships during teens • More rigid, difficult, awkward • Covert dialogs • Those who stay in this stage may have reasons external to relationship • Ex: Parents who “stay together for the kids”
Avoiding – 4th Stage • Avoidance of FTF or VTV encounter • Subtle / indirect cues • Ex: “I don’t really have a lot of time.” • Cognitive dissociation • Mentally and emotionally detached • Happens when physical avoidance is not possible.
Terminating – 5th Stage • Final stage of any relationship - many do not go through this stage • Marked by distance & disassociation • Dialog characterized by 3 topics • Past – where were we? • Present – where are we now? • Future – where will we be?
Exercise • Form 10 groups • In each group, think about an interaction between two persons in one of the 10 stages discussed • Prepare to act the interaction for the education of your peers
Moving through the stages • Generally systematic & sequential • Each stage is influenced by the one before • Predictions about relationships are easier when they are sequenced • When stages are skipped, there in an increase in uncertainty about what happens next.