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Session 4. Theoretically Informed Framework and Model Building for Health and Public Affairs Research. Thomas T.H. Wan. Pink Sheet Highlights A Major Weakness of the Proposal. “The application fails to present a strong and relevant theoretical framework to guide the approach.”

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Session 4. Theoretically Informed Framework and Model Building for Health and Public Affairs Research

Thomas T.H. Wan

COPHA Research Fellowship Program, November 19, 2009

pink sheet highlights a major weakness of the proposal
Pink Sheet Highlights A Major Weakness of the Proposal
  • “The application fails to present a strong and relevant theoretical framework to guide the approach.”
  • “The proposed study lacks a theoretically informed framework to guide the development of testable hypotheses.”
  • “This is an empirical study without any theoretical rationale.”
  • “The study will not make substantive contribution to the field.”

COPHA Research Fellowship Program

1 definition of theory
1. Definition of Theory
  • Kerlinger (1986) has defined theory as a set of interrelated concepts, definitions and propositions of phenomena put together with a systematic view of interrelations with the purpose of describing, explaining, or predicting the phenomenon.
  • Hans Selye (1964) indicated that theory is a bond between facts with fact assimilation. Three categories exist in biological theories: 1) theories of unit formation, 2) theories of classification, and 3) theories of causality.

COPHA Research Fellowship Program

2 definition of theory construction
2. Definition of Theory Construction
  • Con is to bring together and structure is a complex form of an entity or phenomenon.
  • Theory construction is the organization or arrangement of the interrelation of parts to give form to the entity or phenomenon.

COPHA Research Fellowship Program

3 multilevel causal specification
3. Multilevel Causal Specification
  • Unit of analysis
  • Single-level vs. multi-level predictors or exogenous variables
  • Single vs. multiple endogenous variables

COPHA Research Fellowship Program

4 systems perspective of theory construction
4. Systems Perspective of Theory Construction
  • Inputs
  • Ideas of conceptualization
  • Research methods
  • Previous research results
  • New data
  • New analytic techniques
  • Characterization of outputs
  • Parameter estimates
  • Scientific knowledge development

COPHA Research Fellowship Program

5 the process of theory construction
5. The Process of Theory Construction
  • Ideas
  • Creativity
  • Discipline of imagination
  • Logic
  • Methods and procedures
  • Standards of conduct

COPHA Research Fellowship Program

6 the structure of theory construction
6. The Structure of Theory Construction
  • Concepts or constructs
  • Statements of the relationships
  • Hypotheses
  • Measurement and observation
  • Validation
    • Measurement
    • Structural relationships

COPHA Research Fellowship Program

7 theory testing
7. Theory Testing
  • Confirmation by empirical research
  • Falsification
  • Analytical Methods
    • Structural equation modeling
    • Logit, probit and log linear regression
    • Linear and non-linear systems
    • Least squares theory and principles of maximum likelihood

COPHA Research Fellowship Program

8 role of public affairs research
8. Role of Public Affairs Research

COPHA Research Fellowship Program

9 research methodology
9. Research Methodology

COPHA Research Fellowship Program

10 grounded theory theory grounded in data
10. Grounded Theory: Theory grounded in data
  • Charles Cooley (1864-1929)
  • George H. Mead (1863-1931)
  • Erving Goffman (1959)
  • B. Glaser and A. Strauss (1967) --The Discovery of Ground Theory: An inductive methodology used to generate theory through the systematic and simultaneous process of data collection and analysis.

COPHA Research Fellowship Program

11 the developed theory
11. The Developed Theory

“ It consists of a set of relationships which offer the best and most plausible explanation of the research problem. A theory should be conceptually dense (sound) and should account for patterns of action and/or interaction between and among various types of social actors.” C. Goulding (Grounded Theory, 2002).

COPHA Research Fellowship Program

12 how do we develop and construct a theoretically informed framework
12. How Do We Develop and Construct A Theoretically Informed Framework?
  • Interdisciplinary
  • Multidisciplinary
  • Transdisciplinary
  • Other

COPHA Research Fellowship Program

13 examples from an interdisciplinary perspective
13. Examples from An Interdisciplinary Perspective
  • Social Capital and Health
  • Organizational performance and IT integration
  • Holistic health and quality of life
  • Disparities and social change

COPHA Research Fellowship Program

14 examples of multidisciplinary perspective
14. Examples of Multidisciplinary Perspective
  • Welfare reforms
  • Economic recession and poverty
  • Social justice and earning gaps
  • Immigration and assimulation

COPHA Research Fellowship Program

15 trans disciplinary perspective
15. Trans-disciplinary Perspective
  • A transdisciplinary approach requires the team members to share roles and systematically cross discipline boundaries. The primary purpose of this approach is to pool and integrate the expertise of team members so that more efficient and comprehensive assessment and intervention services may be provided. The communication style in this type of team involves continuous give-and-take between all members (especially with the parents) on a regular, planned basis. Professionals from different disciplines teach, learn, and work together to accomplish a common set of intervention goals for a child and her family. The role differentiation between disciplines is defined by the needs of the situation rather than by discipline-specific characteristics. Assessment, intervention, and evaluation are carried out jointly by designated members of the team. This teamwork usually results in a decrease in the number of professionals who interact with the child on a daily basis." M. B. Bruder (1994,p. 61)

COPHA Research Fellowship Program

16 trianglization
16. Trianglization
  • http://www.pdtn.co.uk/sitebuildercontent/sitebuilderfiles/whataboutusreport05

COPHA Research Fellowship Program

17 exercises
17. Exercises

Each fellow should briefly present a theoretical framework to guide the development of a fundable project as follows:

  • Identifying the component of a framework in terms of exogenous and endogenous variables to be studied.
  • Measurement issues
  • Specification of the structural relationships among the study variables or formulation of hypotheses
  • Identification of any confounding factors or control variables
  • Assessment of intervention effects (if it is an experimental study) and determination of the fidelity of the intervention.

COPHA Research Fellowship Program

18 assignment
18. Assignment
  • Prepare a two- or three-page section of the analytical framework for your study.
  • Select the measurement instruments
  • Specify the structural relationships between the study variables.
  • Provide a rationale to justify your selection or formulation of the proposed analytical framework or model for your study.

COPHA Research Fellowship Program

19 using amos to draw a theoretical diagram
19. Using AMOS to Draw A Theoretical Diagram
  • Download a copy of the AMOS Instructional Manual: http://ssc.utexas.edu/consulting/tutorials/stat/amos/
  • Draw a diagram for the model or theoretical framework developed for your study

COPHA Research Fellowship Program