rcs 6080 medical and psychosocial aspects of rehabilitation counseling n.
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RCS 6080 Medical and Psychosocial Aspects of Rehabilitation Counseling. Hematological Disorders. Blood Components. Plasma: The liquid part of blood. All the blood cells are suspended in this liquid. Contains dissolved salts (electrolytes) and proteins

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blood components
Blood Components
  • Plasma:
    • The liquid part of blood. All the blood cells are suspended in this liquid.
    • Contains dissolved salts (electrolytes) and proteins
      • Albumin helps keeps blood vessels from leaking and carries hormones and drugs to different parts of the body.
      • Antibodies (immunoglobulins) that defend the body against viruses, fungi, and cancer cells
    • Serves as a reservoir that can absorb replenish or absorb water from tissues when necessary.
    • Prevents blood vessels from collapsing and clotting by keeping them filled and circulating
    • Plays a role in warming and cooling the body
blood components1
Blood Components

Red Blood Cells

    • Erthrocytes: Make up 40% of the blood’s volume
    • Produced in the bone marrow
    • Contain hemoglobin, a protein that gives blood its red color and enables it to carry oxygen.
  • White Blood Cells
    • Leukocytes: Fewer in number than RBCs (1:660)
    • Primary responsibility: Defend the body against infection
  • Platelets
    • Thrombocytes: cell-like particles smaller than RBCs and WBCs.
    • Help with clotting process by gathering at bleeding site and clumping together to form a plug that helps seal the blood vessel.
blood cells
Blood cells


  • Lymphomas are a malignant proliferation of lymphocytes – either B or T
  • 3% of all cancers in the US result from lymphomas
  • The lymphomas are classified by the appearance of malignant lymphocytes on biopsy of tumor
  • 3 categories
    • Low-grade
    • Intermediate-grade
    • High-grade
functional presentation of lymphoma
Functional Presentation of Lymphoma
  • People present with swollen, growing lymph glands (nodal disease) or tumors in other organs (extramodal disease)
  • Person can be asymptomatic
  • Common B symptoms include fever, drenching night sweats, loss of 10% of body weight, and pruritis (severe itching)
staging of lymphoma
Staging of Lymphoma
  • Stage I – involvement of a single lymph node region or single extranodal organ or site
  • Stage II – involvement limited to one side of the diaphragm with 2 or more lymph node regions
  • Stage III – involvement of lymph node regions on both sides of the diaphragm
  • Stage IV – diffuse or disseminated involvement of one or more extralymphatic organs
treatment and prognosis of lymphoma
Treatment and Prognosisof Lymphoma
  • Since the majority of lymphomas present in multiple areas of the body, localized surgery or radiation is rarely curative
  • Primarily, treatment is chemotherapy
  • Prognosis is dependent on the grade and stage
  • For people who do not respond to primary treatment, bone marrow transplantation is increasingly used
  • Biological agents and vaccine therapy were being tested
  • Acute leukemia is characterized by an abnormal proliferation of immature white blood cells, called blasts or progenitor cells
  • Two main forms of acute leukemia
    • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
      • A cancer at the earliest stages of lymphocyte maturation
      • Occurs more often in the young
    • Acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia
      • Usually a malignancy of the myeloblast
      • More common in adults





A : Picture of bone marrow smear (control); Normal granulocytes and erythroblasts are evident.

B : Acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL); There is a marked proliferation of small lymphoblasts.

C : Acute myeloid leukemia (AML); There is a marked proliferation of large myeloblasts.

D : Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML); There is a marked proliferation of granulocytes at various stages of maturation.

functional presentation of leukemia
Functional Presentation of Leukemia
  • People with leukemia present with signs and symptoms of low red blood cell count (anemia), decreased white blood cells (granulocytopenia) with infection and fever, and a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia) with bleeding
  • People will usually present critically
physical appearance leukemia
Physical appearance & leukemia
  • Specific lesions (leukemia cutis) are localized or disseminated infiltrations of the skin by malignant leukemic cells which may involve all layers of the skin.
  • Chemotherapy needed for treatment of Leukemia usually results in hair loss
treatment of leukemia
Treatment of Leukemia
  • The course of treatment includes red blood cell transfusions to correct the anemia, treatments for infections caused by the lack of mature white blood cells, platelet transfusions to stop any bleeding, and starting chemotherapy to kill the leukemia cells
  • Once chemotherapy stops, tumor cells die, the normal stem cells in the marrow that are resistant to chemotherapy divide, and their progeny cells mature and repopulate the marrow over the next 3 weeks
vocational implications of lymphoma and leukemia
Vocational Implications of Lymphoma and Leukemia
  • Depression, sleep disorder, and anxiety over personal appearance are common
  • Long-term survivors also have persistent problems including decreased energy level, negative body image, depression, employment problems, and marital problems
  • Vocational implications and accommodations are similar to other cancers and are based on symptoms and side effects of treatment
  • Hemophilia is a sex-linked hereditary blood disease characterized by greatly prolonged coagulation time
    • Hemophilia A is due to a deficiency of blood coagulation Factor VIII
      • Accounts for 75% of hemophilia
      • Incidence is 1 in 10,000 male births
    • Hemophilia B is due to a deficiency of blood coagulation Factor IX
      • Incidence is 1 in 75,000 male births
      • Is clinically indistinguishable from hemophilia A
functional presentation of hemophilia
Functional Presentation of Hemophilia
  • The person can present with mild, moderate, or severe hemorrhagic disease, depending on the amount of active protein produced
    • People with mild hemophilia rarely bleed spontaneously and usually are discovered after excessive bleeding secondary to trauma or surgery
    • People with moderate hemophilia have rare episodes of spontaneous bleeding, but can hemorrhage with any trauma
    • People with severe hemophilia have frequent spontaneous hemorrhage from early childhood
functional presentation of hemophilia1
Functional Presentation of Hemophilia
  • People with hemophilia can bleed anywhere, but bleeding into joints (hemarthrosis), soft tissue (such as muscle), urine (hematuria), and the brain are common
  • Chronic bleeding into joints or an acute bleed into the brain or spinal canal can lead to chronic disabilities, both functional and psychological
treatment and prognosis of hemophilia
Treatment and Prognosisof Hemophilia
  • The general principle of treatment of hemophilia is, first, to avoid drugs than can interfere with clotting, particularly aspirin and other NSAIDS that inhibit platelet function
  • Second, early recognition of bleeding episodes or potential trauma and treatment with replacement Factor VIII or IX is imperative
  • Prognosis has improved with the advent of factor concentrate treatment in the 1960s, with fewer severe bleeds, less crippling arthritis from hemarthrosis, and less intracranial bleeding
vocational implications of hemophilia
Vocational Implications of Hemophilia
  • Vocational training should stress jobs that limit potentially hazardous situations
  • People with hemophilia who are on effective replacement therapy can compete equally for most jobs
  • For people with severe hemophilia, the ability to self-infuse agents effectively reduces morbidity and loss of work time
sickle cell disease
Sickle Cell Disease
  • Sickle cell disease causes the red cell to assume a nonpliable sickle shape
  • The resultant cellular defect leads to the main manifestations of the disease, which include:
    • premature death of the cells (hemolytic anemia)
    • vascular occlusion of vessels and subsequent tissue infarction
    • increased susceptibility to infection
sickle cell disease1
Sickle Cell Disease
  • A person with sickle cell is homozygous for the abnormal gene, therefore, both parents must be heterozygous for the abnormal gene
  • The frequency of one abnormal gene is the African-American population is 1 in 12 and the incidence of sickle cell anemia is 1 in 650
  • The frequency of the gene is also high in Mediterranean and African populations
functional presentation of sickle cell disease
Functional Presentation of Sickle Cell Disease
  • People with sickle cell disease usually present in the first decade of life with complications of the three main characteristics of the disorder
    • Anemia
    • Vascular occlusion (resulting in necrosis)
    • Increase susceptability to infections, particularly pneumococcal pneumonia

Humeral head infarction and osteonecrosis in a 50 year old female with sickle cell disease

complications of sickle cell disease
pain episodes


increased infections

leg ulcers

bone damage (osteo-necrosis)

yellow eyes or jaundice

early gallstones

lung blockage

kidney damage and loss of body water in urine

painful erections in men (priapism)

blood blockage in the spleen or liver (sequestration)

eye damage


delayed growth

Complications of Sickle Cell Disease
treatment of sickle cell disease
Treatment of Sickle Cell Disease
  • There is no specific treatment for sickle cell disease, therefore, most therapy is supportive in treatment of the complications
  • Early recognition of infection, administration of prophylactic antibiotics, and vaccination may forestall or prevent other complications
  • If a painful crisis persists or there is infection of a major organ (brain, lung, or heart), exchange transfusion is performed to remove some of the sickle red cells - the effect is temporary
treatment of sickle cell disease1
Treatment of Sickle Cell Disease
  • General guidelines
    • Taking the vitamin folic acid (folate) daily to help make new red cells
    • Daily penicillin until age six to prevent serious infection
    • Drinking plenty of water daily (8-10 glasses for adults)
    • Avoiding too hot or too cold temperatures
    • Avoiding over exertion and stress
    • Getting plenty of rest
    • Getting regular check-ups from knowledgeable health care providers
prognosis of sickle cell disease
Prognosis of Sickle Cell Disease
  • Prognosis has improved with good supportive care, and many people with sickle cell disease survive into middle age
  • However, frequent admissions for painful crises, the complication of sickle cell disease, narcotic use and abuse due to chronic pain, and absence from school and work lead to significant psychological and vocational problems
vocational implications of sickle cell disease
Vocational Implications of Sickle Cell Disease
  • The greatest dysfunction was found in the areas of employment, finances, sleep habits, and performance of daily activities
  • The implications of these findings suggest a strong need for vocational rehabilitation services, training in areas of communication and self-esteem, medical treatment, and psychological help for depression and drug dependence
  • Advisable that these individuals stay away from jobs that cannot be interrupted to take fluids, jobs that involve extreme temperature changes, and jobs with lower O2 concentration
additional resources and information from the web
Additional Resources and Information from the Web
  • Leukemia and Lymphoma Society (www.leukemia.org)
  • Lymphoma Information Network (www.lymphomainfo.net
  • Lymphoma Research Foundation (www.lymphoma.org)
  • Children's Leukemia Research Association (www.childrensleukemia.org)
  • World Federation of Hemophilia (www.wfh.org)
  • National Hemophilia Foundation (www.hemophilia.org)
  • Sickle Cell Society (www.sicklecellsociety.org)
  • Sickle Cell Information Center (www.scinfo.org/)