Automating tactile graphics production dub october 15 2008
Download
1 / 29

Automating Tactile Graphics Production DUB October 15, 2008 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 521 Views
  • Uploaded on

Automating Tactile Graphics Production DUB October 15, 2008. Richard Ladner University of Washington. UW Students. Zach Lattin Math Major. Sangyun Hahn Ph.D. Student CSE. 5. The Problem. graphics. math. text. Outline. Tactual Perception Text Math Graphics. Tactile Perception.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Automating Tactile Graphics Production DUB October 15, 2008' - issac


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Automating tactile graphics production dub october 15 2008

Automating Tactile Graphics ProductionDUBOctober 15, 2008

Richard Ladner

University of Washington


Presentation_7631

UW

Students

Zach Lattin

Math Major

Sangyun Hahn

Ph.D. Student

CSE

5


The problem
The Problem

graphics

math

text


Outline
Outline

  • Tactual Perception

  • Text

  • Math

  • Graphics


Tactile perception
Tactile Perception

  • Resolution of human fingertip: 25 dpi

  • Tactual field of perception is no bigger than the size of the fingertips of two hands

  • Color information is replaced by texture information

  • Visual bandwidth is 1,000,000 bits per second, tactile is 100bits per second


Translation
Translation

Tactile

Visual


Braille
Braille

  • System to read text by feeling raised dots on paper (or on electronic displays). Invented in 1820s by Louis Braille, a French blind man.

a

b

c

z

Critical fact:

Fixed height and width

and

the

with

mother

th

ch

gh

Z

3

Mode characters: cap and num.


Importance of braille literacy
Importance of Braille Literacy

  • In the US, only 30% of blind adults are employed.

  • Among Braille readers:

    • 56% are employed

    • Are better educated

    • Read and write more and better

  • Tactual perception is extremely useful


Tiger embosser
Tiger Embosser

  • 20 dpi (raised dots per inch)

  • Prints Braille text andgraphics

  • Prints dot patterns fortexture


Outline1
Outline

  • Tactual Perception

  • Text

  • Math

  • Graphics



Text translation
Text Translation

Text Image

Optical Character Recognition (OCR)

The constraints do not define a region with any points in common in Quadrant

I. When the constraints of a linear programming problem cannot be satisfied

simultaneously, then infeasibility is said to occur. This may mean that the

constraints have been formulated incorrectly, certain requirements need to be

changed, or that additional resources are required before the problem can be

solved.

Text

Speech Synthesis (Jaws)

Braille Translation (Duxbury)

Braille

,! 3/ra9ts d n def9e a region ) any po9ts 9 -mon 9 ,quadrant

,i4 ,:5 ! 3/ra9ts (a l9e> programm+ pro#m _c 2 satisfi$

simultane\sly1 !n 9f1sibil;y is sd 6o3ur4 ,? may m1n t !

3/ra9ts h be5 =mulat$ 9correctly1 c]ta9 require;ts ne$ 6be

*ang$1 or t a4i;nal res\rces >e requir$ 2f ! pro#m c 2

solv$4

Speech


Outline2
Outline

  • Tactual Perception

  • Text

  • Math

  • Graphics



Math translation
Math Translation

Math Image

Math OCR (Infty Reader)

\begin{eqnarray*}

P(0,0) = 396(0) + 270(0) = 0\\

P(15,0) = 396(15) + 270(0) = 5940\\

P(15,5) = 396(15) + 270(5) = 7290\\

P(0,20) = 396(0) + 270(20) = 5400

\end{eqnarray*}

Latex

Braille Translation (Duxbury)

;,p(0,0) .k #396(0) + #270(0) .k #0

;,p(15,0) .k #396(15) + #270(0) .k #5940

;,p(15,5) .k #396(15) + #270(5) .k #7290

;,p(0,20) .k #396(0) + #270(20) .k #5400

Nemeth Code


Math translation examples
Math Translation Examples

\sum_{i=0}^\infty x^i = \frac{1}{1-x}

\frac{-b \pm \sqrt{b^2 - 4ac}}{2a}

?-b+->b^2"-4ac]/2a#

.,s;i ;.k #0^,="x^i .k ?1/1-x#


Outline3
Outline

  • Tactual Perception

  • Text

  • Math

  • Graphics



Current methods
Current Methods

  • Crafts

  • Low tech embossing

    • Swell paper

    • Capsule paper

    • Thermoform

  • Drawing Software

    • Copying

    • Tracing


Batch translation
Batch Translation

  • Batch Processing instead of one figure at a time.

    • Many figures have similar features

    • Image and graphics software can do batch processing

    • OCR and Braille translation can do batch processing

  • Our software – Removing text from figures.


Batches
Batches

Complex

62

Grid overlap

113

Clean area

83

Clean lines

648

Grid clean

15

No text

41

Overlapped text

94

Radial

53


Graphics translation
Graphics Translation

<LocationInformation>

<NumLabels>16</NumLabels>

<Resolution>100.000000</Resolution>

<ScaleX>1.923077</ScaleX>

<ScaleY>1.953125</ScaleY>

-

<Label>

<x1>121</x1>

<y1>45</y1>

<x2>140</x2>

<y2>69</y2>

<Alignment>0</Alignment>

<Angle>3.141593</Angle>

</Label>

location

file

text extract

preprocess

original

scanned

image

clean

image

puregraphic

textimage


Graphics translation1
Graphics Translation

<LocationInformation>

<NumLabels>16</NumLabels>

<Resolution>100.000000</Resolution>

<ScaleX>1.923077</ScaleX>

<ScaleY>1.953125</ScaleY>

-

<Label>

<x1>121</x1>

<y1>45</y1>

<x2>140</x2>

<y2>69</y2>

<Alignment>0</Alignment>

<Angle>3.141593</Angle>

</Label>

location

file

y

(0,20)

x=15

15

10

5

O

x

5

10

15

20

20

x+y=20

(15,0)

(15,5)

pure

graphic

y

(#0,#20)

x.k#15

#15

#10

#5

O

x

#5

#10

#15

#20

#20

x+y.k#20

(#15,#0)

(#15,#5)

Braille

text

textimage


Available books
Available Books

  • Advanced Mathematical Concepts, Precalculus with ApplicationsGordon-Holliday, et al. 1999 Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

  • 6.3 minutes per figure

  • An Introduction to Modern AstrophysicsCarroll and Ostlie 1996 Addison-Wesley

  • 10.2 minutes per figure

  • Discrete Mathematical StructuresKolman, Busby and Ross 2003 Prentice Hall

  • 8.8 minutes per figure


Tga workflow
TGA Workflow

  • Advantages

    • Much faster production

    • Batch processing instead of one figure at a time

    • Much tedious work is avoided

  • Disadvantages

    • May be of lower quality than custom translation

    • A lot of technology needs to be mastered


One offs vs mass production
One-offs vs. Mass Production

1916 Woods

Dual Power

1906 Reo

Model T


Other uw projects
Other UW Projects

  • WebInSight for Images

    • automatically determining alternative text for many web images.

  • Accessmonkey

    • bringing power to the people through scripting accessibility.

  • WebAnywhere

    • a self-voicing, web-based screen reader that can be used on any computer.

  • WebinSitu

    • studies seeking a better understanding of how blind people use the web.

  • NetMobileAccess

    • using web services to provide mobile accessibility to blind people.


Main contributors
Main Contributors

  • Sangyun Hahn

  • Dan Comden

  • Zach Lattin

  • Jeff Bigham

  • Anna Cavender

  • Chandrika Jayant

  • Many undergraduate students



ad