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IE 327 Introduction to Work Design Dr. Andris Freivalds Class #28. Scope of Human Factors Engineering. Different levels of study and intervention: Micro-level Physical design of tools, human-computer interface, physical environment Macro-level Organizational design,

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

IE 327

Introduction to Work Design

Dr. Andris Freivalds

Class #28

scope of human factors engineering
Scope of Human Factors Engineering
  • Different levels of study and intervention:
    • Micro-level
      • Physical design of tools,

human-computer interface,

physical environment

    • Macro-level
      • Organizational design,

job design, change management

what is macroergonomics
What is Macroergonomics?
  • also called sociotechnical, the study of the society/technology interface. The study of the consequences of technology for social relationships, processes, and institutions. (Computers and Society Glossary)
  • the optimization of organizational and work systems design through consideration of relevant personnel, technological and environmental variables and their interactions. (H.W. Hendrick)
slide4
Goal
  • The goal of macroergonomics is a fully harmonized work system at both the macro- and micro-ergonomic level which results in improved productivity, job satisfaction, health and safety, and employee commitment.
balance model
Balance Model
  • All elements interact - any change in one will affect other elements
  • If all elements are not designed to fit together, there may be a misfit
  • Misfits lead to safety, productivity, efficiency, quality problems
possible misfits
Possible Misfits
  • Worker lacks skills/knowledge base
  • Employees do not agree with management policies
  • Technology is not well suited for the worker/task/organization
  • Organization is harming the environment
  • Outside factors influence work
how can macroergonomics help
How can Macroergonomics Help?
  • Analyze the whole system
  • Determine the “fit” of each element
  • Consider aspects other than just changing the job
tasks
Tasks
  • Properties
    • Content
    • Control
    • Demands
    • Interrelationships
  • Tasks are usually changed to improve safety and/or production
lifting case study
Lifting Case Study
  • How do you convince workers to change?
  • If you change this task, how does it change other tasks?
tools technology
Tools/Technology
  • Properties
    • Functions
    • Capabilities
    • Capacities
    • Usability
    • Friendliness
    • Integration
  • Many companies are introducing new technology
cpoe case study
CPOE Case Study
  • Traditional paper and pencil industry
  • How do you get everyone on-board?
  • How do you ensure

success?

organization
Organization
  • Properties
    • Purposes
    • Policies
    • Procedures
    • Supervision
    • Decision making structure
    • Reward Structure
  • Changes can have a ripple effect
mcwane
McWane
  • What were the management policies?
  • How did the workers feel about working there?
department of homeland security
Department of Homeland Security
  • Where is their:
    • Organization? (hodge podge)
    • Line of communications?
  • What is their reputation?
    • e.g. consider TSA (Transportation Security Administration)!
    • e.g. consider the Katrina response!
environment
Environment
  • Properties
    • Physical
      • Comfort
      • Sensory and Performance disruption
    • Social
      • Interaction with coworkers/boss
      • Social support
      • Extra-organization factors
  • Internal and external factors have an affect
gilbane gold
Gilbane Gold
  • How does the environment affect the company?
  • How does the company affect the environment?
sensory environmental analysis case study
Sensory/Environmental Analysis Case Study
  • How does the presence of these factors affect the worker/job?
  • How can the system deal with these issues?
human
Human
  • Properties
    • Background
    • Attributes
    • Experience
    • Needs
    • Skills
    • Motivations
    • Intelligence
  • Most difficult element to change
four main areas of concern
Physiological factors

Vision

Height

Weight

Forward arm reach

Strength

Disabilities

Psychological factors

Attention

Memory

Fear

Boredom

Fatigue

Satisfaction

Stress

Four Main Areas of Concern
slide20
Psychosocial factors

Workload

Work content

Repetition

Boredom

Role ambiguity

Role conflict

Mental demands

Supervisor-employee relationship

Social support at work and home/community

Shift work

Reward structure - pay, benefits, equity

Status

Behavioral factors

Reaction time

Response accuracy

Appropriateness of response

Adaptation

Endurance

human element
Human Element
  • Can you change the human?
  • How do you motivate employees?
  • How do you get employees to accept change?
maslow s hierarchy of needs
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Self

Actualization

Esteem Needs

Social Needs

Safety Needs

Physiological Needs

macroergonomic case studies 1 southwest pros
Macroergonomic Case Studies #1 Southwest - Pros
  • Culture based on the customers, employees, and shareholders
  • Strong work ethic, but have fun
  • Keep costs low
  • High performance
  • Hire for attitude not skills?
macroergonomic case studies 1 southwest airlines cons
Macroergonomic Case Studies #1 Southwest Airlines - Cons
  • Not completely nationwide
  • No “frills”
  • Ignore competition?
  • Hire for attitude not skills?
macroergonomic case studies 2 wal mart pros
Macroergonomic Case Studies #2 Wal-Mart - Pros
  • Innovative
  • Employee participation
  • Continuous training
  • Adapt to the environment
  • Community involvement
macroergonomic case studies 2 wal mart cons
Macroergonomic Case Studies #2 Wal-Mart - Cons
  • No Union?
  • Different philosophies at each store
  • Worker treatment
  • “Bully” vendors
  • Public opinion
macroergonomics review
Macroergonomics - Review
  • Examines all aspects of the system
  • A misfit in any area can lead to total failure
  • Work to ensure harmony within every part of the system