M21 Assessment in the Workplace. Biodata & The Interview Dr Caroline Bailey. Overview. Biodata Definition Validity Advantages & Disadvantages The Interview Overview of the ‘typical’ interview The quality of the interview as a selection technique : micro- and macro-analytic research
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Biodata & The Interview
Dr Caroline Bailey
Prevalence of use : Robertson & Makin (1986) : survey of major British employers identified in The Times 1000.
Function : - various perspectives
1.Who does the interviewing ?
2.Structure of the Interview (Herriot)
3. Content of the Interview
e.g. marital status, religion, home ownership, criminal record*, military discharge, pregnancy, spouse and family responsibilities
‘Questions posed during the interview (should) relate only to the requirements of the job. Where it is necessary to discuss the personal circumstances and their effect upon ability to do the job, this should be done in a neutral manner, equally applicable to all applicants’
Equal Opportunities Commission
r = 0.23 - 0.97 (specific traits);
r = -0.20 - 0.85 (overall ability).
Herriot (1991) cites
(i.e. structured interviews)
‘A series of job related questions with predetermined answers that are consistently applied across all interviews for a particular job.’
Pursell, Campion & Gaylord (1980)
Situational Interview : Latham et al (1980)
v = 0.33(Black)
Criticisms : Objective-Psychometric
Criticisms : Subjective-Social
Originally used for military purposes in WWII, then Bray and Byham (1950’s)… first commercial AC (AT&T). 26 dimensions measured by :
Guidelines : 17th International Congress on the Assessment Centre Method (1989)
4. Gathering Data
[ Dimension-specific vs Task-specific ]
NB1. Developments in testing and interview techniques (and issue of incremental validity)
NB2. Can cheaper measures substitute ?
Lowry (1994) : AC and Personnel Records : AC strength = assessment of interpersonal skills.
Gaugler et al (1987) : meta-analysis of AC validity : criteria = (1) career progress; (2) overall performance ratings (3) dimensional performance ratings (4) ratings of potential (5) wages (6) training performance
Average ‘r’ = 0.40 (variance due to variation in components)
Higher validities reported for AC’s with :
(1) wider range of exercises (2) psychologists & managers as assessors (3) included peer ratings in OAR (4) have more female candidates.
= although AC does show convergent validity, discriminant validity is usually poor.
1. Behaviour Checklists :
2. Key Behaviours (Key Actions) :
Fletcher, Lovatt & Baldry (1997) : state, trait and test anxiety to AC performance
38 candidates of an AC (8 dimensions, 7 ‘exercises’)
DeVries (1993) : critique of AC method (incl. AC model takes an outdated view of the manager) Bray and Associates (1992) : evi. of changes in dimensions assessed.
‘autobiographical data which are objective or scorable items of information provided by an individual about previous experience (demographic, experiential, attitudinal) which can be presumed or demonstrated to be related to personality structure, personal adjustment or success in social, educational or occupational pursuits’ (Owen, 1976)
Drakeley (1989) : classification of biodata :
(i) background data (ii) commitment data
(iii) achievement data
Henry (1966) : dimensions of biodata include :
actual capacity of certain biodata to discriminate
rationally derived biodata
conceptual model - biodata that ought to be related to criterion
Strengths : Reilly & Chao (82) predictive validity can be as high as to consider biodata a legitimate alternative to standardised testing