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International cooperation in evaluation of environmental & economic impacts of tilapia-shrimp polycultures. Remedios Bolivar, Yang Yi Wilfrido Contreras, Kevin Fitzsimmons Aquaculture CRSP US Aquaculture Meetings Feb. 20, 2003. Introduction.

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International cooperation in evaluation of environmental & economic impacts of tilapia-shrimp polycultures

Remedios Bolivar, Yang YiWilfrido Contreras, Kevin FitzsimmonsAquaculture CRSP

US Aquaculture Meetings

Feb. 20, 2003

introduction
Introduction
  • More efficient use of resources (water, land, feed, labor, etc)
  • Shrimp and tilapia are two of the most important aquaculture products
  • They share many ecological characteristics, polyculture worldwide
  • Farm experience suggest benefits to polyculture
  • Opportunity to restore abandoned farms
introduction3
Introduction
  • Conducted survey in Thailand, Vietnam, Mexico, the Philippines and the US.
  • Followed with field trials in Thailand and Mexico
  • Preliminary lab studies support field reports
  • Survival and growth rates improved
reported benefits
Reported benefits
  • Reduction in levels of pathogens (green Vibrios and viral infections)
  • Fish reduce accumulation of wastes in production units
  • Fish encourage beneficial algal blooms
  • Tilapia consume potential disease vectors, especially crustacea
reported benefits5
Reported benefits
  • Bring disease ravaged farms back into production
  • Lower density, less technology intensive
  • Fish can be sold into local markets to improve domestic food supply
  • Displaced social groups may be able to take advantage of abandoned farms
several models
Several models
  • Tilapia in cages in shrimp pond
  • Tilapia in supply reservoirs
  • Tilapia and shrimp loose in pond
  • Tilapia and shrimp in crop rotation
  • Tilapia to treat/re-use shrimp effluent
philippines early adoption of polyculture
Philippines - Early adoption of polyculture
  • Severe disease outbreaks in shrimp industry in 1990’s
  • Major producer of tilapia
  • Developed tilapia-shrimp polyculture system on Negros Island
  • Crop-rotation, tilapia in cages, and tilapia in reservoir
  • Have been operating for 6 years
tilapia shrimp polyculture in mexico
Tilapia - shrimp polyculture in Mexico
  • Tilapia-shrimp polyculture in full seawater
  • Effluent from shrimp goes to tilapia
  • Tilapia consume uneaten feed, fecal strands, macro-algae and reduce organic matter levels in effluent
  • Additional experimental trials being conducted at Autonomous University of Tabasco, survey in Sinaloa
tilapia shrimp production in ecuador and peru
Tilapia-shrimp production in Ecuador and Peru
  • Supplementing shrimp because of white spot and other shrimp diseases
  • Crop rotation, tilapia in supply reservoirs
  • Using shrimp infrastructure
  • Exporting tilapia to US and EU
slide13

Red strains of tilapia most popular

for brackish polyculture systems

thailand farm based polyculture systems
Thailand farm-based polyculture systems
  • Tilapia in cages in shrimp ponds
  • Tilapia in sequential polyculture before and after shrimp ponds
  • Farmers testing impacts on microflora
thailand experimental polyculture systems at ait
Thailand experimental polyculture systems at AIT
  • Shrimp survival - 90%
  • Shrimp yield - 3,000 kg/ha
  • Tilapia survival - > 90%
  • Tilapia yield - 1,500 kg/ha
  • Tilapia growth - 10g to 300g in 10 weeks
  • Shrimp survival and yield was lower in monoculture control
us shrimp tilapia polyculutre
US Shrimp-Tilapia polyculutre
  • Tilapia production in supply reservoirs
  • Condition water before shrimp
arizona results
Arizona results
  • Average tilapia yield - 2,400 kg in 0.04 ha ponds (eight months) {60,000 kg/ha}
  • Average shrimp yield - 2,000 kg in 0.1 ha ponds (five months) {20,000 kg/ha}
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Polyculture with shrimp will become common in most shrimp farming areas
  • Already practiced in Thailand, Philippines, Vietnam, Mexico, US (Arizona and Florida), Ecuador, Peru, Eritrea. Will expand.
conclusions22
Conclusions
  • Tilapia in supply reservoirs most common
  • Cage culture of tilapia in shrimp pond
  • Crop rotation of tilapia after shrimp disease outbreaks
thank you for your interest
Thank you for your interest
  • Research support provided by the Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP
  • Questions ????