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Industrial Production of Citric Acid. Application of Citric Acid : (text,p.524) Acidulant in food, confectionary, and beverage (75%) Pharmaceutical (10%), e.g. soluble aspirin preparation - industrial (15%): complexes with metals such as iron and copper to be stabilizer of oil and fats.

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slide1

Industrial Production of Citric Acid

Application of Citric Acid: (text,p.524)

  • Acidulant in food, confectionary, and beverage (75%)
  • Pharmaceutical (10%), e.g. soluble aspirin preparation

- industrial (15%): complexes with metals such as iron and copper to be stabilizer of oil and fats.

slide3

Industrial Production of Citric Acid

  • Microorganism: Aspergillus niger (mainly), Candida yeast (from carbohydrates or n-alkanes)
  • Citric acid production is mixed growth associated, mainly take place under nitrogen and phosphate limitation after growth has ceased.
  • Medium requirements for high production

- Carbon source: molasses or sugar solution.

- Na-ferrocyanide is added to reduce Iron (1.3 ppm) and manganese (<0.1ppm).

- High dissolved oxygen concentration

- High sugar concentration

- pH<2

- 30 oC.

slide4

Industrial Production of Citric Acid

Bioreactor: batch or fed-batch (100m3)

  • 5-25X106A. niger spores/L may be introduced to the fermentor.
  • Aeration is provided to the fermenter by air sparging (0.1-0.4 vvm)
  • Temperature is controlled by cooling coil.
  • Agitation: 50-100rpm to avoid shear damage on molds.
  • Fed-batch is used to reduce substrate inhibition and prolong the production phase one or two days after growth cessation.
  • Volumetric yield: 130 kg/m3
slide5

Industrial Production of Citric Acid

Separation:

- The biomass is separated by filtration

- The liquid is transferred to recovery process:

- Separation of citric acid from the liquid: precipitation

calcium hydroxide is added to obtain calcium citrate

tetrahydrate → wash the precipitate→ dissolve it with

dilute sulfuric acid, yield citric acid and calcium

sulfate precipitate → bleach and crystallization →

anhydrous or monohydrate citric acid.

slide6

Industrial Production of Ethanol

Application of Ethanol:

  • Medical
  • Fuel

- Industrial

slide8

Industrial Production of Citric Acid

  • Microorganism: S. cerevisae for hexose

Candida sp. for lactose or pentose

Genetically modified E. coli

  • Ethanol production is growth-associated with S. cerevisae.
  • Medium requirements for high production

- Carbon source: sugar cane, starch materials (e.g. corn, wheat), cellulosic materials (?!). yield: 0.51 g ethanol/g glucose.

- N, P, minerals.

- Anaerobic

- 100g/L glucose are inhibitory for yeast.

- 5% (v/v) of ethanol are inhibitory for yeast.

- pH:4-6 for 30-35 oC.

slide9

Industrial Production of Citric Acid

Bioreactor: batch, continuous or with cell recycle

95% conversion of sugars with a residence time of

40 h in batch reactor

21 h in continuous reactor without cell recycle

1.6 h in continuous reactor with cell cycle

By-products: glycerol, acetic acid, succinic acid.

Separation:

- Distillation to obtaining 95% (w/w) of ethanol-water mixture, followed by

- Molecular sieves to removing water from the mixture to get anhydrous ethanol.

slide10

Ethanol Production

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