history of psychology l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
History of Psychology PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
History of Psychology

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 45

History of Psychology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 439 Views
  • Uploaded on

History of Psychology. Chapter 7 Functionalism: Development and Founding . James did not found functional psychology James did influence the movement of functional psychology . I. William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology. William James. A. Jame’s early life

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'History of Psychology' - issac


Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
history of psychology

History of Psychology

Chapter 7

Functionalism: Development and Founding

i william james 1842 1910 anticipator of functional psychology
James did not found functional psychology

James did influence the movement of functional psychology

I. William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology

William James

i william james 1842 1910 anticipator of functional psychology3
A. Jame’s early life

From wealthy family

Educated in England, France, German, Italy, Switzerland,and US.

Illness and family

Travel is a way of coping with his restlessness

Used will power to cure his depression

I. William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology
i william james 1842 1910 anticipator of functional psychology4
I. William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology
  • B. James's career
    • 1 . abandoned chemistry: lab work too demanding
    • 2. medicine: little interest
    • 3. rejected biology: could not tolerate the precise collecting and physical demands of field work
    • 4. interested in learning from Helmholtz and Wundt
i william james 1842 1910 anticipator of functional psychology5
I. William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology
  • 5. 1875-1876: taught his first course in psychology
    • a. first time experimental psychology taught in United States
  • 6. 1890: Principles of psychology:
  • 12-year effort
    • a. most influential psychology textbook ever
i william james 1842 1910 anticipator of functional psychology6
I. William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology
  • 7. 1890s: recognized as America's leading philosopher
  • 8. 1899: Talks to Teachers
    • The beginning of educational psychology
    • Applying psychology in classrooms
i william james 1842 1910 anticipator of functional psychology7
I. William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology
  • C. The Principles of Psychology
    • a. goal of psychology: study of living people as they adapt to their environment
    • b. function of consciousness: is required for survival
    • c. emphasizes nonrational aspects of human nature e.g., Emotion or passion
    • d. beliefs are determined by emotional factors
i william james 1842 1910 anticipator of functional psychology8
I. William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology
  • D. The subject matter of psychology: A new look at consciousness
    • 1.phenomena: is the subject matter of psychology and is to be found in immediate experience
    • 2. conditions: the importance of the body, especially the brain, in mental life.
i william james 1842 1910 anticipator of functional psychology9
I. William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology
  • 3. rebelled against artificiality and narrowness of the Wundtian’s approach
  • 4. introspection does not show elements exist independently of the observer (psychologists' fallacy)
i william james 1842 1910 anticipator of functional psychology10
I. William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology
  • 5. consciousness is
    • a. continuous flow: stream of consciousness
      • Consciousness is a continuous flowing process and that any attempt to reduce it to elements will distort it.
    • b. always changing, not recurrent, cumulative, selective: criterion is relevance
    • c. enables one to adapt to one's environment by allowing one to choose
i william james 1842 1910 anticipator of functional psychology11
I. William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology
  • E. The methods of psychology
    • 1 .introspection is a basic tool and is less than perfect
    • 2. experimental method
      • a. did not use it much
      • b. but acknowledged its use as a means to psychological knowledge, especially for psychophysics
i william james 1842 1910 anticipator of functional psychology12
I. William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology
  • E. The methods of psychology
    • 3 .comparative method: supplements introspection and experimentation
    • 4. implied functional psychology is not restricted to a single technique
i william james 1842 1910 anticipator of functional psychology13
I. William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology
  • E. The methods of psychology
    • 5. emphasized the value of pragmatism
      • a. validity of an idea is its practical utility
      • b. anything is true if it works
i william james 1842 1910 anticipator of functional psychology14
I. William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology
  • F. The theory of emotions
    • 1 .before James: emotion precedes physical arousal/response (fearrun)
    • 2. James: physical arousal/response precedes emotion (runexperience fear)
      • if no bodily change, then no emotion
the functional inequality of women mary calkins 1863 1930
The Functional inequality of women---Mary Calkins (1863-1930)
  • A. Mary Calkins
    • 1. James helps her to overcome barriers of discriminaiton
    • 2. denied PhD from Harvard University; awarded honorary degree from Columbia University
the functional inequality of women mary calkins 1863 193016
The Functional inequality of women---Mary Calkins (1863-1930)
  • 3. 1st women president of the APA
  • 4. 1906: ranked 12th among the 50 most important psychologist in the US
  • 5. paired associate technique
the functional inequality of women mary calkins 1863 193017
The Functional inequality of women---Mary Calkins (1863-1930)
  • Variability hypothesis (Darwinian ideas)
    • The notion that men show a wider range and variation of physical and mental development than women; the abilities of women are seen as more average
    • Women less likely to benefit fromeducation
    • Inequality between the sex
the functional inequality of women helen woolley 1874 1947
B. Helen Woolley

1. Born in Chicago

2. Parents supported the idea of education for women

3. 1990, received her Ph.D. under Angell and Deway

The Functional inequality of women---Helen Woolley (1874-1947)
the functional inequality of women helen woolley 1874 194719
The Functional inequality of women---Helen Woolley (1874-1947)
  • 4. 1921, the president of the National Vocational Guidance Association
  • 5. 1924, director of the new Institute of Child Welfare Research at Columbia University.
  • 6. Worked on the area of child development, education, vocational education, and school guidance counseling
the functional inequality of women helen woolley 1874 194720
The Functional inequality of women---Helen Woolley (1874-1947)
  • 7. Her dissertation was the first experimental test of Darwinian notion that women are biologically inferior to men.
    • The results showed no sex differences in emotional functioning and only small differences in intellectual abilities. Women were slightly superior to men in memory and sensory perception.
    • She attributed the differences to the social and environmental factors
the functional inequality of women leta hellingworth 1886 1939
C. Leta Hollingworth

1. Received her Ph.D. under Cattell at Columbia U.

2. Married women can not permitted to teach in public school at that time.

The Functional inequality of women---Leta Hellingworth (1886-1939)
the functional inequality of women leta hellingworth 1886 193922
The Functional inequality of women---Leta Hellingworth (1886-1939)
  • 3. Conducted studies on variability hypothesis
  • 4. The results refused the variability hypothesis and the notion of female inferiority
  • 5. Challenged the idea of woman’s desire to have career was abnormal or unhealthy
the functional inequality of women leta hellingworth 1886 193923
The Functional inequality of women---Leta Hellingworth (1886-1939)
  • 6. Contribute to clinical, educational, and school psychology, especially the educational and emotional needs of gifted children.
  • 7. But, she was never able to obtain research grant support.
functionalism at the chicago school john dewey 1859 1952
A. Career

1. Undistinguished early life

2. Taught high school for few years

3. 1884: received his Ph.D. at John Hopkins University

4. 1886: Psychology (first American textbook in psychology)

Functionalism at the Chicago School---John Dewey (1859-1952)
functionalism at the chicago school john dewey 1859 195225
Functionalism at the Chicago School---John Dewey (1859-1952)
  • 5. established a laboratory school at U of Chicago----cornerstone for education movement
  • 6. 1904: Columbia U., to work on application of psychology to educational and philosophical problems
functionalism at the chicago school john dewey 1859 195226
Functionalism at the Chicago School---John Dewey (1859-1952)
  • B. 1896: "The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology“
    • 1 . attacked molecularism, elementism, and reductionism of reflex arc
    • 2. behavior cannot be reduced to sensorimotor elements
    • 3. consciousness cannot be meaningfully analyzed into elements
functionalism at the chicago school james rowland angell 1869 1949
A. Career

1. Born in an academic family

2. studied under Dewey at the University of Michigan (undergraduate)

3. Read James’ book and work with him and received a master’s degree.

Functionalism at the Chicago School--James Rowland Angell (1869-1949)
functionalism at the chicago school james rowland angell 1869 194928
Functionalism at the Chicago School--James Rowland Angell (1869-1949)
  • 4. Studied in Germany for his Ph.D. but did not receive his degree
  • 5 . no PhD but received 23 honorary degrees
  • 6. Accepted a position at the U. of Chicago.
  • 7. president of Yale University; helped develop the Institute of Human Relations
  • 8.1906: APA 15th president
functionalism at the chicago school james rowland angell 1869 194929
Functionalism at the Chicago School--James Rowland Angell (1869-1949)
  • B. The province of functional psychology
    • 1. 1904: Psychology
      • a. function of consciousness: is to improve the organism's adaptive abilities
      • b. goal of psychology: to study how the mind assists the adjustment of the organism to its environment
functionalism at the chicago school james rowland angell 1869 194930
Functionalism at the Chicago School--James Rowland Angell (1869-1949)
  • 2. identified three themes for functional psychology
    • a. the psychology of mental operations
    • b. the psychology of the fundamental utilities of consciousness
    • c. the psychology of psychophysical relations (mind-body relations)
  • 3. gave functionalism necessary focus and stature
functionalism at the chicago school harvey a carr 1873 1954
A. – Career

1 . mathematics major, switched to psychology

2. first course in experimental psychology taught by Angell

Functionalism at the Chicago School---Harvey A. Carr (1873-1954)
functionalism at the chicago school harvey a carr 1873 195432
Functionalism at the Chicago School---Harvey A. Carr (1873-1954)
  • 3. lab assistant with J. B. Watson
  • 4. introduced to animal psychology by Watson
  • 5. PhD at Chicago (1905)
  • 6. chair at Chicago: 1919-1938; 150 PhDs
functionalism at the chicago school harvey a carr 1873 195433
Functionalism at the Chicago School---Harvey A. Carr (1873-1954)
  • B. Peaked under Carr
    • 1. Maintained the functional psychology was the American psychology
    • 2. nothing could be added to the functional psychology
functionalism at the chicago school harvey a carr 1873 195434
Functionalism at the Chicago School---Harvey A. Carr (1873-1954)
  • 3. 1925: Psychology
    • a. the most refined form of functionalism
    • b. the subject matter is mental activity/processes
      • including memory, perception, feeling, imagination, judgment, will
functionalism at the chicago school harvey a carr 1873 195435
Functionalism at the Chicago School---Harvey A. Carr (1873-1954)
  • c. function of mental activity
    • 1) to acquire, retain, organize, and evaluate experiences
    • 2) to use these experiences to determine one's actions
  • d. adaptive behavior: the specific form of action in which mental activities appear “adaptive” behavior.
functionalism at the chicago school harvey a carr 1873 195436
Functionalism at the Chicago School---Harvey A. Carr (1873-1954)
  • 4. Functionalism was the mainstream psychology
  • 5. accepted data from introspection and experiments
  • 6. emphasis on objectivity
  • 7. Used both animal and human as subjects
functionalism at the chicago school harvey a carr 1873 195437
Functionalism at the Chicago School---Harvey A. Carr (1873-1954)
  • 8. Carr believed study of cultural creations provided information about the mental activities that produced them
  • 9. Chicago school bridged move from study of subjective consciousness toward study of objective overt behavior
functionalism at columbia university robert woodworth 1869 1962
A. Career

1. heard Stanley Hall’s talk, read James’s book: decided to become a psychologist

2. 1899: PhD from Columbia with Cattell

3. taught physiology three years in hospitals

4. 1903-1945: taught at Columbia U. (retired a second time in 1958)

Functionalism at Columbia University---Robert Woodworth (1869-1962)

Robert Woodworth

functionalism at columbia university robert woodworth 1869 196239
Functionalism at Columbia University---Robert Woodworth (1869-1962)
  • B. Dynamic psychology
    • 1. psychological knowledge
      • a. begin with investigation of nature of the stimulus and the response (external, objective events)
      • b. However, miss the living organism itself
        • 1) acts to determine the response
functionalism at columbia university robert woodworth 1869 196240
Functionalism at Columbia University---Robert Woodworth (1869-1962)
  • 2. Stimulus and response: can be observed objectively
  • 3. inside the organism: can be known only through introspection.
  • 4. Accepted introspection, and observational and experimental methods are all useful tools for psychology
functionalism at columbia university robert woodworth 1869 196241
Functionalism at Columbia University---Robert Woodworth (1869-1962)
  • 5. dynamic psychology
    • a. concerned with the causal factors and motivations in feelings and behavior.
  • 6. emphasized physiological events that underlie behavior
  • 7. psychology's goal: determine why people behave as they do
criticisms of functionalism
Criticisms of Functionalism
  • A. "Functionalism" not well defined
    • 1. Two definition:
      • an activity
      • the usefulness of some activity to the organism, e.g., function of digestion or breathing
    • 2. Carr: the two definitions are not inconsistent and both referred to the same process.
  • B. Titchener's structuralists: functionalism is not psychology
criticisms of functionalism43
Criticisms of Functionalism
  • C. Applied aspects
    • 1. Carr: argued both pure and applied psychology
      • a. adhere to rigorous scientific procedures
      • b. valid research can be performed in classrooms, labs, etc.
      • c. it is the method, not the subject matter, that counts
    • 2. Later, applied psychology has become so pervasive in American psychology
contributions of functionalism
Contributions of Functionalism
  • A. shift in emphasis from structure to function
  • B. research on animal behavior became an area of study for psychology
  • C. inclusion of humans other than "normal adults" as subjects
    • Infant, children, or people with mental disabilities
contributions of functionalism45
Contributions of Functionalism
  • D. inclusion of methods beyond introspection
    • Physiological research, mental tests, questionnaire,s, and objective descriptions of behavior
  • E. emphasis on the application of the methods and findings of psychology to the solution of practical problems.