First 3 Steps to conduct research 1. Generate idea 2. Review literature Review related theories 3. Develop research questions Develop testable hypotheses
Steps to conduct research -- continued 4. Choose research design (experimental, non-, quasi-, etc.) # and timing of observations, quantitative, qualitative) 5. Decide what to observe Select variables and measures
Steps to conduct research -- continued 6. Choose study population Select sampling technique Select sample 7. Consider ethics of study 8. Pretest measures Pilot test study
Steps to conduct research -- continued 9. Conduct study / Collect data 10. Analyze data (quantitative: use descriptive & inferential statistics) Interpret results 11. Report and present results
Sources of research ideas • Casual observation of world around us • Systematic observation • you or research reports • Theory • Need to solve practical problem • Reading the literature
Choosing a research topic • Is it interesting to you? • Is it do-able? Can it be done over the next few months? • What is already known about this area? • What are the unanswered questions in this area? • Why is your study important?
Research Question • A broad open-ended question your research tries to answer • Research questions are “How” “Why” “What” questions • (Avoid “yes” “no” questions) • Ask a question that can be answered • empirical question rather than metaphysicial one
RESEARCH QUESTIONS • What are UHM students’ attitudes toward the proposed legalization of gambling in HI and its possible effects? • What factors influence UHM students choice of contraceptives?
Research questions are central • Your entire research project revolves around the research question(s). • Your study should be designed to answer the research question(s) • (internal validity)
Research Hypotheses • A prediction statement of the outcome of a study • “Educated guess” • May describe relationship between variables • A specific statement that can be tested to which you can answer with “yes” or “no” based on the data you collect (Don’t use “why” “how” “what” questions) • Your research tries to find out whether your hypothesis is supported or rejected
Research questions • How are traffic cameras impacting safety? • How does the public feel the traffic cameras affect their driving? • Hypotheses • Drivers slam on their brakes when they see a speed van on the road. • The speed cameras reduce the amount of speeding.
Research question • How do living environments affect college students’ sexual behavior? • Hypothesis • College students who live on their own (in dorms or apts.) are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior.
Research question • What are UHM students attitudes toward the proposed legalization of gambling in Hawai’i and its possible effects? • Hypotheses • UHM students predict that prostitution would increase with the legalization of gambling in Hawai’i. • UHM students think the legalization of gambling would bring more tourists to Hawai’i.
Homework 1: Possible research questions & research hypotheses • (6 points) Due: January 23 • Write research questions you might like to study • List at least 1 possible hypothesis under each question. • E.g., Res ? How do UH students cope with stress? • Hyp. 1: UH students are most likely to report that they exercise to cope with stress. • Hyp 2: At least 50% of male UH students will report that they listen to music to cope with stress.
Types of Hypotheses • Non-directional Hypotheses • Directional Hypotheses • Null Hypotheses
Non-directional Hypotheses • State what variable has an impact on DV, but does not say what kind of impact it has • Example: • Colors of clothing affect people’s mood
Directional Hypotheses • State what variable has an impact on DV and say what kind of impact it is • Example: • Bright color of clothing uplifts people’s mood
Null Hypotheses • State that there is no relationship between two variables • The opposite of the non-directional research hypothesis • Example: • Colors of clothing has no impact on people’s mood
Hypotheses • The speed cameras have no affect on the amount of speeding. (null hypothesis) • The speed cameras affect the amount of speeding. (non-directional hypothesis) • The speed cameras reduce the amount of speeding. (directional hypothesis)
Example Research Question: What influences the growth of plants?
Example: Hypotheses • Non-Directional Hypothesis • The amount of sunshine affects the growth of plants • Directional Hypothesis • The amount of sunshine enhances the growth of plants • Null Hypothesis • The amount of sunshine has no influence on the growth of plants
In-class exercise • Write a null, non-directional, and directional hypotheses for each and label: 1. Peers influence whether a person will binge drink or not. 2. Female UH students prefer to be under their current body weight. 3. UH M students will pay more to attend a nightclub with live music over DJ music. 4. College students that do smoke would prefer to date someone that does not smoke.