ISLAMISM IN EGYPT - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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ISLAMISM IN EGYPT

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  1. ISLAMISM IN EGYPT

  2. WHAT IS POLITICAL ISLAM • Perception vs. Reality • What are the popular perceptions? • What does Charles Hirschkind say? • The political and non-political • Moving beyond Din wa Dawla

  3. ISLAMISM • What is it? • What is a Social Movement? • “Collective challenges to existing arrangements of power and distribution by people with common purposes and solidarity, in sustained interaction with elites, opponents, and authorities” • What does that really mean? • Focusing on methods employed by challengers • Disruptive vs. Moderate tactics • The Problem of Institutionalization • Repression-Moderation Dilemma

  4. CASE STUDY OF ISLAMISM: WHY THE MUSLIM BROTHERHOOD IN EGYPT • Most powerful opposition to the Egyptian regime. They are banned. Can they tell us more about Islamist movements in the Middle East? • Historical context • Anthropological Perspective • Social Movement Theories • Political Science

  5. EGYPTIAN HISTORY: POLITICAL STRUCTURES • Islamic History in Egypt • Ottoman Empire • British Colonialism • Rise of the Muslim Brotherhood • Nasser (1952-1973): Arab Socialism • Sadat (1973-1981): Liberalization • Mubarak (1981-Present): Religious Awakening and Gil as-Sab`inat (The 70s generation)

  6. RADICALISM: CASE STUDY AL-GAMA`A AL-ISLAMIYYAH • Isolated in Upper Egypt in 1980s • Ran 150 mosques, conferences in mosques • Developed their own security • 1990: Security Forces assassinated `Ala’ Muhyi al-Din (Spokesperson of the al-Gama`a) • Gama`a in retaliation killed Speaker of the Parliament • March 1992: Sectarian clashes

  7. 1995 PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS • 53 Died; 601 injured • Jan 22, 1995: 27 MBs arrested • July 28, 1995: 200 arrested • Sept, 1995: 5 arrested • Oct, 1995: 21 arrested • Nov, 1995: 6 arrested • Dec, 1995: 95 arrested • Total 81 transferred to military courts: 54 sent to jail for 3-5 years; 27 found innocent

  8. THE SPLIT WITHIN THE MB

  9. SPLIT CONTINUED

  10. SPLIT CONTINUED

  11. A LOOK AT THE ENGINEERS’ ASSOCIATION • Engineers’ Assoc. also PA that Madi led as second in command. Looking at 1988-1995 • Nov. 1988: Conference on affordable housing with Minister of Housing and Development • Jan. 1989: Seminar on unemployment in Egyptian society and engineers • Feb. 1990: Seminar on Freedom and Development • Feb 19-21, 1992: Seminar on the debates within Sciences, Research, and Development • June 1992: Seminar on Terrorism—Causes, Effects, and Possible Solutions • Nov 1994: Seminar on improving engineering education globally • Engineers’ Assoc had 40 committees: Treasury, Housing, Sinai Development, Rebuilding effort in Lebanon and Bosnia, etc. • Annual Syndical Conferences were held where PAs discussed everything from development to national health issues , unemployment, civil liberties, domestic policies, research, torture, international relations, etc