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Down to the Sea in Ships: How did They Get Here? by Bev & Ken Rees. Agenda. Some definitions Arrival Records Departure Records Ship’s Logs and Company Records Printed and Secondary Sources Research tips and Strategies. What is a Ship's Passenger List?.

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down to the sea in ships how did they get here by bev ken rees
Down to the Sea in Ships:

How did They Get Here?

by Bev & Ken Rees

agenda
Agenda
  • Some definitions
  • Arrival Records
  • Departure Records
  • Ship’s Logs and Company Records
  • Printed and Secondary Sources
  • Research tips and Strategies
what is a ship s passenger list
What is a Ship's Passenger List?
  • A ship’s passenger list is a list of passengers and crew on a particular ship.
  • A ship’s passenger list substitute is a list of passengers and crew on a particular ship reconstructed from other sources.
the migration process
The Migration Process
  • Obtain permission to leave
  • Travel to the port of departure
  • Obtain passage
  • Travel to the destination port (may have been several stops)
  • Obtain permission to enter
types of ship s passenger lists
Types of Ship's Passenger Lists
  • Records kept at the port of departure
  • Records kept at the port of arrival
  • Records kept at ports of call along the route
  • Records kept by shipping companies
arrival records
Arrival Records
  • Canada
  • United States
canada
Canada
  • Halifax, Nova Scotia (1881–1935)
  • Saint John, New Brunswick (1900–1935)
  • Sydney, Nova Scotia (1906–1935)
  • Quebec and Montreal, Quebec (1865–1935)
  • Vancouver, British Columbia (1905–1935)
  • Victoria, British Columbia (1905–1935)
  • via New York (1906–1931)
  • via Eastern US Ports (1905–1928)
canadian immigration history
Canadian Immigration History
  • Prior to 1865, there was no requirement to retain ship’s passenger lists.
  • Passenger lists were generated but in general were not retained.
  • Therefore, no organized collection of lists exist in Canada prior to 1865.
  • There are scattered and limited lists for individual ports and individual ships.
library and archives canada
Library and Archives Canada
  • Library and Archives Canada is responsible for preserving all records of national importance.
  • http://www.collectionscanada.ca/
provincial sources all periods
Provincial Sources (all periods)
  • Some provincial archives hold material that relate to ship’s lists.
  • Usually, these will be a type of ship’s list substitute.
  • Some of this material may be useful in determining date and port of arrival.
  • http://www.collectionscanada.ca/genealogy/022-802-e.html
canada prior to 1865
Canada Prior to 1865
  • French Regime
  • British Regime
french regime
French Regime
  • French Colonial Records Passenger Lists
    • 1717–1760
    • 1786
  • Colonial Archives

At Library and Archives Canada

british regime
British Regime
  • Miscellaneous Immigration Index
    • From British Isles
    • To Quebec and Ontario
    • 1801–1849
  • Irish Assisted Immigration to Peterborough early 1820s
canada 1865 1919 1925 1935
Canada 1865-1919, 1925-1935
  • ‘Large sheet’ ship’s manifests
  • Fairly complete
  • Arranged by port and date of arrival
  • Library and Archives Canada (microfilm)
  • Filmed in 1949, but not up to today’s standards
canada 1919 to 1924
Canada 1919 to 1924
  • Individual Form 30a
  • Various ports changed to/from Form 30a at various times
  • Microfilmed
  • Arranged in ‘quasi-alphabetical’ order
early canadian ship s list contents
Early Canadian Ship’s List Contents
  • Name
  • Age
  • Sex
  • Country of origin
  • Occupation
  • Place of destination
large sheet and form 30a contents
‘Large Sheet’ and Form 30A Contents
  • Name of ship
  • Date of sailing
  • Port and date of arrival
  • Name
  • Age
  • Occupation
large sheet and form 30a contents continued
‘Large Sheet’ and Form 30A Contents continued. . . . . .
  • Birthplace
  • Race
  • Citizenship
  • Religion
  • Destination
  • Name of the nearest relative in the country from which the immigrant came.
finding aids canada
Finding Aids - Canada
  • French Regime - http://www.collectionscanada.ca/genealogy/022-908.002.01-e.html
  • Colonial Records -http://www.collectionscanada.ca/archivianet/020112_e.html
  • RG 76 - http://www.collectionscanada.ca/genealogy/022-908.003.02-e.html
indices canada
Indices - Canada
  • British Regime - http://www.ingeneas.com/
  • Quebec City (1865–1869) - http://www.collectionscanada.ca/genealogy/022-908.003.01-e.html
  • Halifax (1881–1882) - http://www.collectionscanada.ca/genealogy/022-908.003-e.html
  • On-line database - RG76 -(1925-1935) - http://www.collectionscanada.ca/archivianet/020118_e.html
but there are so few canadian indexes
But There are So Few Canadian Indexes!
  • Pressure our government for more funding <smile>
  • Volunteer to transcribe, index, abstract, or extract some of the many ship’s lists available from LAC or other sources
  • Visit http://www.immigrantships.net/ (The Immigrant Ships Transcribers Guild)
but there are so few canadian indexes continued
But There are So Few Canadian Indexes! continued. . . . . .
  • Many, many ships have been partially or fully transcribed. Start to gather links to those you find while searching the web.
  • Start a new project (see http://www.afhs.ab.ca/registry/index.html)
  • Cooperate with others in indexing the existing transcriptions.
us immigration history
US Immigration History
  • Prior to 1820, there was no requirement to document immigrants into the United States.
  • Between 1820 and 1891, the Bureau of Customs was tasked with keeping such records – the Customs Passenger Lists.
  • After 1891, the Immigration and Naturalization Service kept Immigrant Passenger Lists.
national archives and records administration
National Archives and Records Administration
  • The US National Archives and Records Administration (similar to Library and Archives Canada) is charged with the custody and preservation of records of national import.
  • http://www.archives.gov/
customs passenger lists
Customs Passenger Lists
  • Prepared in duplicate on board.
  • One copy was filed by the master with collector of customs.
  • Other copy was kept with the ship’s papers.
  • Copies and abstracts sent to the Secretary of State
  • Transcriptions of the copies were also made.
customs passenger list contents
Customs Passenger List Contents
  • Name
  • Age
  • Sex
  • Occupation
  • Nationality
  • Destination country
immigrant passenger lists
Immigrant Passenger Lists
  • Immigrant passenger lists were kept by the Immigration and Naturalization authorities (and their predecessor organizations).
  • They contained basically the same information as the old Customs passenger lists.
  • The amount of information was increased as time went on.
immigrant passenger lists contents
Immigrant Passenger Lists Contents
  • Name
  • Age
  • Sex
  • Occupation
  • Nationality
  • Destination country
immigrant passenger lists contents continued
Immigrant Passenger Lists Contents continued. . . . . .
  • (after 1882) native country, local destination,
  • (after 1891) last residence,
  • (after 1893) marital status, if joining a relative and if so name, address, and relationship, amount of money, health and social conditions,
  • (after 1903) race,
  • (after 1907) physical description.
titanic survivors
Titanic Survivors

Filed by mistake with

June 12, 1912 arrivals.

(The “Carpathia”

rescued these survivors)

records before 1820
Records Before 1820
  • Are not filed nationally
  • May be filed at the Port of Entry
  • May be called ship’s cargo manifests
  • Consult the state archive for additional information -http://www.archives.gov/research/alic/reference/state-archives.html
  • Except….
records before 1820 continued
Records Before 1820 continued. . . . . .
  • Arrivals at New Orleans, Louisiana, 1813-1819
  • Arrivals at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1800-1819
united states major ports
United States Major Ports
  • Galveston, Texas (1846–1948)
  • New Orleans, Louisiana (1820–1900)
  • Baltimore, Maryland (1820–1948)
  • New York, New York (1820–1938)
  • Boston, Massachusetts (1820–1943)
  • Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (1800–1945)
  • Others (many others)….
finding aids
Finding Aids
  • By port - http://www.archives.gov/genealogy/immigration/passenger-arrival.html#film
galveston indexes
Galveston Indexes
  • 1844 – 1848 - http://www.tsm-elissa.org/immigration-login.htm
  • 1846 – 1871 – Ancestry.com
  • 1896 – 1952 – NARA microfilm
new orleans indexes
New Orleans Indexes
  • 1853 – 1899 - NARA microfilm
  • 1900 – 1952 – NARA microfilm
  • 1820 – 1850 – Ancestry.com
baltimore indexes
Baltimore Indexes
  • 1820 – 1897 – NARA microfilm
  • 1833 – 1866 – NARA microfilm city lists
  • 1897 – 1952 – NARA microfilm
new york indexes
New York Indexes
  • 1820 – 1846 - NARA microfilm
  • 1846 – 1851 - NARA - http://aad.archives.gov/aad/series-list.jsp?cat=SB301&bc=sb
  • 1851 – 1891 - Ancestry.com - http://www.ancestry.com/
  • 1892 – 1924 - Ellis Island - http://www.ellisisland.org/
additional new york indexes online
Additional New York Indexes (Online)

Castle Garden (1820 – 1892) - http://www.castlegarden.org/

boston indexes
Boston Indexes
  • 1848 – 1891 – NARA microfilm
  • 1902 – 1920 – NARA microfilm
  • 1899 – 1940 – NARA microfilm
  • 1820 – 1943 – Ancestry.com
  • For missing periods, see the Massachusetts state lists (http://www.sec.state.ma.us/arc/arcidx.htm)
philadelphia indexes
Philadelphia Indexes
  • 1800 – 1906 – NARA microfilm
  • 1883 – 1948 – NARA microfilm
departure records
Departure Records
  • British Isles
  • Scandinavia
  • Netherlands/Belgium/France
  • Germany/Central Europe
british isles ports
British Isles Ports
  • Hull, England
  • Liverpool, England
  • Southampton, England
  • Glasgow, Scotland
  • http://www.findmypast.com/ - indexes to those leaving the United Kingdom from 1890 to 1919. (1920 to 1960 coming soon)
scandinavia ports
Scandinavia Ports
  • Gothenburg, Sweden
  • Stockholm, Sweden
  • Oslo, Norway
  • Trondheim, Norway
  • Copenhagen, Denmark
netherlands belgium france
Netherlands/Belgium/France
  • Amsterdam, Netherlands
  • Antwerp, Belgium
  • Cherbourg, France
  • Le Havre, France
  • Rotterdam, Netherlands
  • La Rochelle
hamburg
Hamburg
  • Up to 30% of immigrants passed through Hamburg
  • Indexes and ship’s lists are available for the great majority of the period from 1850 – 1934 (the Great War interrupted emigration)
  • Partial indexes are available on line at http://www.linktoyourroots.hamburg.de/
  • Ancestry.com also has indexes.
  • The ship’s lists are divided into direct and indirect lists.
bremen
Bremen
  • Passenger lists were kept from about 1832
  • The early lists were destroyed between 1875 and 1909 because of lack of space.
  • Lists kept between 1910 and 1920 were destroyed by Allied bombing in the Second World War
  • Lists from 1921 to 1939 are available.
  • Substitutes are available.
departure records77
Departure Records

For records relating to these ports, see http://www.familysearch.org/

Or http://www.cyndislist.com/portsdepart.htm

Or http://www.google.ca/

ship s logs company records
Ship’s Logs/Company Records
  • Ship’s Logs may be found via maritime museums, such as
    • Mariner’s Museum – Newport News, VA
    • Mystic Seaport – Mystic, CT
    • National Maritime Museum – San Francisco, CA
  • A list of shipping lines may be found at http://www.theshipslist.com/index.html
    • In general, the company must be contacted for access to their archives.
printed and secondary sources
Printed and Secondary Sources
  • In the next few slides, a brief sampling is given of some of the printed and secondary sources that might be consulted. There are many, many more.
  • Note that almost every index is a secondary source.
  • Hence the imperative need to always consult the original record.
printed and secondary sources continued
Printed and Secondary Sourcescontinued. . . . . .
  • Filby, P. William, ed. Passenger and Immigration Lists Index: A Guide to Published Arrival Records of ... Passengers who Came to the United States and Canada in the Seventeenth, Eighteenth, and Nineteenth Centuries. 3 volumes plus annual supplements. Detroit: Gale Research Co., 1981-__. This series is a finding aid to published passenger lists. Be sure to read the "front material" to understand how to use the information you find.
printed and secondary sources continued81
Printed and Secondary Sourcescontinued. . . . . .
  • Filby, P. William, ed. Passenger and Immigration Lists Bibliography, 1538-1900. 2d ed. Detroit, MI: Gale Research Co., 1988.
  • Lancour, Harold, comp. A Bibliography of Ship Passenger Lists, 1538-1825; Being a Guide to Published Lists of Early Immigrants to North America. 3d ed. New York: New York Public Library, 1978.
printed and secondary sources continued82
Printed and Secondary Sourcescontinued. . . . . .
  • Wood, Virginia Steele, comp. Immigrant Arrivals: A Guide To Published Sources - http://www.loc.gov/rr/genealogy/bib_guid/immigrant/
printed and secondary sources continued83
Printed and Secondary Sourcescontinued. . . . . .
  • Boyer, Carl. Ship Passenger Lists, National and New England (1600-1825). Newhall, CA: C. Boyer, 1977. Covers Lancour entries 1-71.
  • Boyer, Carl. Ship Passenger Lists, New York and New Jersey (1600-1825). Newhall, CA: C. Boyer, 1978. Covers Lancour entries 72-115.
printed and secondary sources continued84
Printed and Secondary Sources continued. . . . . .
  • Boyer, Carl. Ship Passenger Lists, Pennsylvania and Delaware (1641-1825). Newhall, CA: C. Boyer, 1980. Covers Lancour entries 116-197.
  • Boyer, Carl. Ship Passenger Lists, the South (1538-1825). Newhall, CA: C. Boyer, 1979. Covers Lancour entries 198E-243.
printed and secondary sources continued85
Printed and Secondary Sourcescontinued. . . . . .
  • Tepper, Michael. New World Immigrants: a Consolidation of Ship Passenger Lists and Associated Data from Periodical Literature. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1979.
  • Tepper, Michael. Passengers to America: A Consolidation of Ship Passenger Lists From the New England Historical and Genealogical Register. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1977.
printed and secondary sources continued86
Printed and Secondary Sourcescontinued. . . . . .
  • Tepper, Michael. Emigrants to Pennsylvania, 1641-1819: a Consolidation of Ship Passenger Lists from the Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1978
  • Tepper, Michael. Immigrants to the Middle Colonies: a Consolidation of Ship Passenger Lists and Associated Data from The New York Genealogical and Biographical Record. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1978
printed and secondary sources continued87
Printed and Secondary Sourcescontinued. . . . . .
  • A dictionary of immigrants to Nova Scotia, by Leonard H. Smith, Jr, Owl Books, ca. 1985.
  • A dictionary of Scottish emigrants to Canada before Confederation, by Donald Whyte, Ontario Genealogical Society, 3 volumes.
  • Canadian passengers inward bound, 1856 1858 by Mary Kearns Trace, Calgary, Traces, ca.1997.
printed and secondary sources continued88
Printed and Secondary Sourcescontinued. . . . . .
  • Index of some passengers who emigrated to Canada between 1817 & 1849, compiled and edited by John A. Acton, Ontario Genealogical Society, ca. 2003. (Index to the lists found in the British Colonial Office 384 records.)
  • The Lanark Society settlers : ships' lists of the Glasgow Emigration Society, 1821, by Gerald J. Neville, British Isles Family History Society of Greater Ottawa, 1995.
printed and secondary sources continued89
Printed and Secondary Sourcescontinued. . . . . .
  • Names of emigrants : from the 1845 1847 records of James Allison, emigrant agent at Montreal, prepared by the Irish Research Group, Ottawa Branch, Ontario Genealogical Society, 1994.
  • Passengers to New Brunswick: The Custom House Records; 1833, 34, 37 & 1838, by Daniel F. Johnson, Saint John Branch, New Brunswick Genealogical Society, ca. 1987.
printed and secondary sources continued90
Printed and Secondary Sources continued. . . . . .
  • The McCabe list : early Irish in the Ottawa Valley, by Bruce S. Elliott, Ontario Genealogical Society, 2002 (revised edition).
  • The people's Clearance : Highland emigration to British North America, 1770 1815, by J. M. Bumsted, University of Manitoba Press, 1982.
printed and secondary sources continued91
Printed and Secondary Sourcescontinued. . . . . .
  • The Silver Chief: Lord Selkirk and the Scottish Pioneers of Belfast, Baldoon and Red River, by Lucille H. Campey.
printed and secondary sources continued92
Printed and Secondary Sourcescontinued. . . . . .
  • "La Rochelle et le Canada au XVIIe siècle" by Marcel Delafosse in Revue d'histoire de l'Amérique Française, volume 4 (1951), pages 469 511, 1632 to 1693.
  • Les passagers du Saint André: La recrue de 1659, by Archange Godbout, Montréal, Société généalogique canadienne Française, 1964, 166 pages..
printed and secondary sources continued93
Printed and Secondary Sourcescontinued. . . . . .
  • "Liste des navires venus en Nouvelle France de 1657 à 1665", by Michel Langlois in l'Ancêtre (Québec), Volume 3 (1976), pages 3 15.
common research strategies
Common Research Strategies
  • Search the passenger lists directly
  • Use an arrival index
  • Use a departure index
  • Narrow the search
  • Search for birds of a feather
  • Go line by line
search the passenger lists directly
Search the passenger lists directly
  • Use this strategy when you know the exact date and port of arrival. In this case, there is no need for an index as you have the information to go directly to the appropriate ships list.
use an arrival index
Use an arrival index
  • A great many of the US ports have a name index for arriving passengers. Where possible, use the index to locate the arrival record for your ancestor.
  • We discussed arrival indexes when we talked about arrival records.
use a departure index
Use a departure index
  • A few of the European and British ports have published indexes for departing passengers. Use these indexes to find the departure date, the port of arrival, and the arrival date. Then go to the arrival ships lists and locate the name of your ancestor.
  • We talked about departure indexes when we talked about departure records.
narrow the search
Narrow the search
  • Narrow the search by weeding out impossible ships, impossible ports of entry (or departure), and impossible dates.
  • First search the most probable, then search the increasingly improbable.
  • The Canadian immigration records from 1865 to 1922 have a very good search tool that can help us narrow the search.
search for birds of a feather
Search for birds of a feather
  • Since most of our ancestors traveled and arrived in groups, use the techniques of cluster genealogy to pin-point the arrival port and date.
  • In every record in which your ancestor appears, note the people mentioned.
  • Those mentioned most often form a core group. It may be that these immigrated at the same time and from the same place.
go line by line
Go line by line
  • This is the strategy of last resort!
  • Even here, don’t start in January and wade through to December.
  • Search March, April, May, September, October, November, June, July, August, December, January, and finally February.
can you find a substitute for a missing passenger list
Can You Find a Substitute for a Missing Passenger List?
  • Look at the following:
    • Newspaper records at the port of departure
    • Newspaper records at the port of arrival
    • Pest hospital records
    • Indenture records
    • Oaths of allegiance
    • Health certificates
    • Entry Permits
how should an index be used
How Should an Index Be Used?
  • Know the difference between an index, an abstract, and an extract.
  • Search all possible spellings
  • Search for related individuals
  • Search for known immigrants who resided in the same area as your ancestor
  • When an entry is found, consult the original record. (Always!)
  • When an entry is not found, search the original records. (Always!)
finding aids104
Finding Aids
  • Finding aids give access to one portion of a group of records.
  • Finding aids are similar to indexes, but they usually identify a larger area to search.
finding aid use
Finding Aid Use
  • Know what information is absolutely required in order to use the finding aid.
  • Know what information might help in using the finding aid. (More is not always better!)
  • Identify a strategy to get the required information.
strategies for finding the port and date of arrival
Strategies for Finding the Port and Date of Arrival
  • Use home sources (letters, journals, diaries, histories, interviews)
  • Use printed or secondary sources, such as indexes
  • Look for naturalization records
  • Consult the census
  • Review immigrant aid society and religious records
  • Track family, neighbours and friends
strategies for finding the port and date of arrival continued
Strategies for Finding the Port and Date of Arrival continued. . . . . .
  • Land records
  • Death registrations
  • Directories
  • National registrations (Canada, 1940)
  • Consider settlement patterns and available transportation
  • Look at nationality, ethnicity, culture, and religion
  • What ports were active at the time?
using the record
Using the Record
  • When you find an individual, look to see who the traveling companions are.
  • Be aware of the provenance of the record or index you are using.
  • Immediately create a source citation.
  • If you can, make an exact copy of what you find (photocopy, digital image, scanned image)
slide110

Beverley A. & Kenneth W. Rees

15 Heritage Point West

Lethbridge, AB T1K 7B7

Phone: 403.328-9366

Email: ancestor-find@familyhistree.com