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DNA - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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DNA. http://www-personal.umich.edu/~sarhaus/courses/501w98/AUDRA/dna.jpg. What is DNA?. “DNA is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and some viruses.”

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slide1

DNA

http://www-personal.umich.edu/~sarhaus/courses/501w98/AUDRA/dna.jpg

what is dna
What is DNA?
  • “DNA is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and some viruses.”
  • “DNA is often compared to a set of blueprints or a recipe, or a code, since it contains the instructions needed to construct other components of cells, such as proteins and RNA molecules.”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA , http://www.ch.cam.ac.uk/magnus/molecules/nucleic/dna1.jpg

slide3

What is DNA cont.?

  • “DNA consists of two long polymers of simple units called nucleotides with backbones made of sugars and phosphate groups joined by ester bonds.”
  • “Attached to each sugar is one of four types of molecules called bases. It is the sequence of these four bases along the backbone that encodes information.”

http://www.ec.gc.ca/EnviroZine/images/DNA.jpg , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA

slide4

DNA Base Pairing

  • DNA has 4 bases…
  •  Guanine
  • Cytosine
  • Adenine
  • Thymine
  • Certain Bases will only pair with one other base…
  •  Guanine & Cytosine
  •  Adenine & Thymine

http://www.biologycorner.com/resources/DNA-colored.gif

slide5

What is DNA

Fingerprinting?

  • DNA Fingerprinting was developed in 1984, by a British geneticist named Alec Jeffrey's. Variation in peoples DNA was utilized to find individuals.
  • “The chemical structure of everyone's DNA is the same. The only difference between people is the order of their base pairs.”
  • “There are so many millions of base pairs in each person's DNA that every person has a different sequence.”
  • “These patterns are able to determine whether two DNA samples are from the same person, related people, or non-related people.”

http://protist.biology.washington.edu/fingerprint/dnaintro.html

http://www.umbi.umd.edu/education-outreach/scitech/dnaexplorationstudentpacket.pdf

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Restriction Enzymes

  • A tool scientists use to “digest or cut” DNA at a particular sequence.
  • DNA restriction analysis is based on two
  • assumptions:
  • DNA molecules can be identified by a difference in the sequence of bases
  • Enzymes, produced naturally by bacteria, cut DNA molecules at specific sites identified by the difference in the sequence of bases.

http://www.umbi.umd.edu/education-outreach/scitech/dnaexplorationstudentpacket.pdf

slide7

Restriction Enzymes

  • In the example below, the DNA is cut with the enzyme, HaeIII. Note that the enzyme
  • cuts only at its particular recognition site (GGCC).

http://www.umbi.umd.edu/education-outreach/scitech/dnaexplorationstudentpacket.pdf