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DNA. http://www-personal.umich.edu/~sarhaus/courses/501w98/AUDRA/dna.jpg. What is DNA?. “DNA is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and some viruses.”

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What is dna l.jpg
What is DNA?

  • “DNA is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and some viruses.”

  • “DNA is often compared to a set of blueprints or a recipe, or a code, since it contains the instructions needed to construct other components of cells, such as proteins and RNA molecules.”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA , http://www.ch.cam.ac.uk/magnus/molecules/nucleic/dna1.jpg

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What is DNA cont.?

  • “DNA consists of two long polymers of simple units called nucleotides with backbones made of sugars and phosphate groups joined by ester bonds.”

  • “Attached to each sugar is one of four types of molecules called bases. It is the sequence of these four bases along the backbone that encodes information.”

http://www.ec.gc.ca/EnviroZine/images/DNA.jpg , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA

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DNA Base Pairing

  • DNA has 4 bases…

  •  Guanine

  • Cytosine

  • Adenine

  • Thymine

  • Certain Bases will only pair with one other base…

  •  Guanine & Cytosine

  •  Adenine & Thymine


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What is DNA


  • DNA Fingerprinting was developed in 1984, by a British geneticist named Alec Jeffrey's. Variation in peoples DNA was utilized to find individuals.

  • “The chemical structure of everyone's DNA is the same. The only difference between people is the order of their base pairs.”

  • “There are so many millions of base pairs in each person's DNA that every person has a different sequence.”

  • “These patterns are able to determine whether two DNA samples are from the same person, related people, or non-related people.”



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Restriction Enzymes

  • A tool scientists use to “digest or cut” DNA at a particular sequence.

  • DNA restriction analysis is based on two

  • assumptions:

  • DNA molecules can be identified by a difference in the sequence of bases

  • Enzymes, produced naturally by bacteria, cut DNA molecules at specific sites identified by the difference in the sequence of bases.


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Restriction Enzymes

  • In the example below, the DNA is cut with the enzyme, HaeIII. Note that the enzyme

  • cuts only at its particular recognition site (GGCC).