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NS100 Fundamentals of Naval Science Damage Control Objectives: 1. Understand damage control theory and its interaction with the damage control organization. 2. Understand the different classes of fires and their preferred extinguishing agents.

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slide1

NS100

Fundamentals of

Naval Science

Damage Control

slide2

Objectives:

1. Understand damage control theory and its interaction with the damage control organization.

2. Understand the different classes of fires and their preferred extinguishing agents.

3. Understand the basic purpose of the firemain system.

slide3

Objectives:

4. Discuss the basic procedures for combating shipboard fires and flooding.

5. Be familiar with the damage control equipment, used in combating fires and flooding.

damage control theory
Damage Control Theory

Shipboard fires and other damage control emergencies can cause loss of life and severely damage equipment.

It can go from a small casualty to a shipwide catastrophe in a few seconds.

Recent history provides us with example of fire on board Forrestal, Enterprise, Stark, and more recently YP693.

damage control theory6
Damage Control Theory

The only way to effectively fight fires and control the spread of damage is to have a well-trained and ready Damage Control organization.

DAMAGE CONTROL INVOLVES EVERY PERSON IN THE SHIP

damage control organization
Damage Control Organization

1. The primary duty of the DC organization is the prevention and control of damage in order to keep the ship fighting. DC objectives are attained by taking the necessary action to:

a. preserve stability

b. preserve water-tight integrity

c. control list and trim

damage control organization8
Damage Control Organization

d. prevent, isolate, combat, extinguish and remove effects of fire.

e. detect, confine, and remove effects of CBR attack

f. facilitate the care of personnel injuries

g. make rapid repairs to the ship’s structure and equipment

damage control organization9
Damage Control Organization

3. Damage Control organization is divided into two parts:

a. Administrative / preventative organization - PQS / PMS

b. Battle corrective organization - inport fire parties, rescue and assistance (R&A) teams,and repair lockers.

fire prevention
Fire Prevention

Background:

Fire and flooding are constant potential hazards aboard ship. All possible measures must be taken to prevent their occurrence or to bring about their rapid control and return to normalcy.

fire prevention12
Fire Prevention

1. Each ship is required to institute and maintain a fire prevention program.

2. The program should heighten the awareness of ship’s personnel in the following areas:

a. Reduction of fire hazards

b. Proper stowage, handling, classification of hazardous material (HAZMAT)

fire prevention13
Fire Prevention

c. Shipboard fuels fire prevention

d. Hotwork precautions

e. Removal of trash

f. Removal of fuels and lubricants from drip pans

fire prevention14
Fire Prevention

g. Proper PMS on firefighting equipment

h. Conduct frequent fire safety inspections.

battle organization underway
Battle Organization (Underway)

The basic D.C. organization consist of D.C. central and repair parties.

1.Commanding Officer (command and control)

a. Has overall responsibility for the safety of the

ship and the lives of the crew.

b. Must ensure the command is adequately

trained and continually exercised.

c. Must be fully aware of the adequacy and

operability of all DC equipment

battle organization underway16
Battle Organization (Underway)
  • 2.Executive Officer
  • Responsible for training and DC readiness
  • b. Leader of the Damage Control Training
  • Team (DCTT).
battle organization underway17
Battle Organization (Underway)

3.Officer of the Deck (OOD)

a. CO’s primary assistant and / or direct

representative on the bridge.

b. Must have extensive knowledge of ship’s

systems and DC emergency procedures.

battle organization underway18
Battle Organization (Underway)

4.Damage Control Assistant (DCA)

a. Coordinates action from Damage Control

Central (DCC).

b. Receives and evaluates information from all repair parties.

c. Initiates orders to repair parties.

battle organization underway19
Battle Organization (Underway)

e. Keeps the bridge informed of the progress of

firefighting, flooding control, CBR defense...

f. Maintains required charts and diagrams.

battle organization underway20
Battle Organization (Underway)

5.At-sea Fire Party

a. Responds immediately to fire alarms when

repair parties are not manned.

b. Extinguishes small fires without disrupting

other ship’s operations.

c. Controls fires until general quarters stations

can be manned and become ready to effect

relief of the Repair party.

battle organization underway21
Battle Organization (Underway)

6. Repair Parties:

a. General Functions:

- Control and extinguish fires, control flooding

- First aid evacuation of wounded

- Electrical and sound-powered phone repair

- Identification and decontamination of CBR

agents

- Perform emergency repairs

- Evaluate and report damage

- Repair hull damage

battle organization underway22
Battle Organization (Underway)

b. Specific functions:

- Repair II = Forward Repair

- Repair III = Aft Repair (secondary DCC)

- Repair V = Main Propulsion

- Repair VIII Electronics Repair

repair party organization
Repair Party Organization

Number of Men Position Team

1 Scene Leader Attack Team

1Team Leader - OBA Attack Team

1 per hose Nozzleman - OBA Attack Team

2 per hose Hosemen - OBA Attack Team

1 per hose Plugman

4 Rapid Response Team

2 Investigator - OBA

6 Boundaryman

2 Messenger/Phone Talker

1 Electrician

emergency party organization
Emergency Party Organization

a. Repair Party Leader

- Takes charge at the repair locker.

- Receives reports from scene leader and

investigators.

- Reports to and receives orders from DC

Central.

emergency party organization25
Emergency Party Organization

b. Scene Leader

- In charge at the scene

- Determines the method of attack, what

agents to use, where to establish initial fire and smoke boundaries, etc.

- Receives information from the team leader and investigators, and makes reports to the repair locker and DC Central

emergency party organization27
Emergency Party Organization

ATTACK TEAM

c. Team Leader:

- In charge of the attack team (nozzleman and hosemen) and reports to the scene

leader.

- Wears an OBA and protective clothing

- Operates the Naval Firefighter’s Thermal Imager (NFTI) when required.

attack team
ATTACK TEAM

d. Nozzleman:

- Wears an OBA and protective clothing.

- Employs hose or other extinguishing agent under the direction of the team leader.

attack team30
ATTACK TEAM

e. Hosemen:

- Wears an OBA and protective clothing.

- Tends hose or other extinguishing agent

under the direction of the nozzleman.

emergency party organization31
Emergency Party Organization

f. Access / Overhaul man:

- Uses various tools and techniques, as

required, to safely gain access to spaces for

attack teams.

- After fire is extinguished, returns to use

various tools as required to overhaul the fire

and ensure the fire is completely out.

emergency party organization32
Emergency Party Organization

g. Plugman:

- Stands by the fire-plug for hose charging and

securing under the direction of the scene

leader.

- Provides CO2 or PKP bottles to the scene as

needed.

- Wears an OBA when required.

emergency party organization33
Emergency Party Organization

h. Rapid response Team:

- Proceeds directly to the scene of the fire with portable extinguishers to attack the fire.

- Does not dress out. Their job is to extinguish a small fire or to control a large fire to keep it from spreading further.

emergency party organization34
Emergency Party Organization
  • Investigators:

- Constantly searching all surrounding /

boundary areas for fire, damage, and

personnel casualties.

- Reports to the repair party leader or scene

leader as appropriate, using the best means.

emergency party organization35
Emergency Party Organization

j: Boundarymen

- Cool decks and bulkheads with installed

systems

- Set fire boundaries as directed by the

scene leader or investigator.

- Remove/relocate flammables as

required.

emergency party organization37
Emergency Party Organization

m. Electrician:

- Secures electrical power to and through the affected space when directed by the scene leader.

- Secures or energizes ventilation as directed by the repair party leader.

emergency party organization38
Emergency Party Organization

o. Gas Free Petty Officer:

- Conducts atmospheric tests following

desmoking to ensure the space is safe for personnel.

fire fighting procedures
Fire Fighting Procedures

When the fire is discovered:

a. Spread the word

b. On-Scene Leader proceeds to scene

c. Rapid Response Team attempts to

extinguish the fire

d. Secure electrical power to the space

fire fighting procedures40
Fire Fighting Procedures

e. Attack team dons firefighting gear and

proceeds to the space

f. Boundary men will set boundaries

- Remove flammable liquids from

adjacent spaces

- Continually monitor decks and

bulkheads for fire and heat

- Cool decks and bulkheads if they

become hot

fire fighting procedures41
Fire Fighting Procedures

g. Investigators rove the perimeter of the fire,

report the status of fire boundaries.

h. OSL makes continuous reports to the repair

party leader, who reports to the DCA.

i. once fire is out, set a reflash watch

j. Desmoking team will desmoke affected

compartments

fire fighting procedures42
Fire Fighting Procedures

k. Gas free Petty Officer conducts atmospheric

tests to ensure compartment is safe

DCA control the entire evolution

from DC Central and advises the CO.

flooding procedures
Flooding Procedures

The following procedures are general guidelines for controlling either flooding or progressive flooding:

a. Attempt to secure the source of flooding

b. Spread the word

c. On-Scene Leader proceeds to scene

d. Rapid Response Team attempts to Secure the source of flooding ( Watertight Compartmentation)

flooding procedures47
Flooding Procedures

e. Secure electrical power to the space

f. Installed eductors can be used on larger

ships to provide a greater capacity to

remove water

g. Boundarymen will set flooding boundaries

- Continually monitor decks and bulkheads

for progressive flooding

- Report any additional flooding

flooding procedures48
Flooding Procedures

h. Investigators rove the perimeter of the

flood, report the status of fire boundaries.

i. OSL makes continuous reports to the repair

party leader, who reports to the DCA.

DCA controls the entire evolution from

DC Central and advises the CO.

classes of fires
Classes of Fires

1. Class ALPHA Fires:

- Characterized by any material that leaves an ash

when burned

- Fuels are mattresses, books, paper, wood, etc.

- Generally produces white smoke

Primary extinguishing agent: firefighting water

classes of fires51
Classes of Fires

2. Class BRAVO Fires:

- Flammable liquid fires

- Gasoline, JP-5, DFM,

oils, paints, thinners,

solvents,

- Generally produces

black smoke

Primary extinguishing agent: AFFF Aqueous Film Forming Foam

classes of fires52
Classes of Fires

3. Class CHARLIE Fires:

- Electrical fires

- Electric motors, controllers, wiring, and

electronic equipment

- Generally produces bluish-white smoke

Primary extinguishing agent: Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

classes of fires54
Classes of Fires

4. Class DELTA Fires:

- Special fires

- Normally associated with burning metals

(magnesium, titanium)

- No specific type of smoke associated with this type

of fire.

- Primary extinguishing agent: Large amounts of

water; jettison if possible.

firemain system
Firemain System

- The purpose of the firemain system is to provide seawater for fighting fires, but the firemain also provides many other critical services, such as cooling for electronics and air conditioning.

firemain system56
Firemain System

Main Components of the Firemain System:

1. Fire and Flushing Pumps: These pumps are electric, diesel, or steam-driven centrifugal pumps rated between 500 - 1000 GPM. These pumps are designed to have a discharge pressure of between 75 - 175 PSI.

Most ships will have 125 PSI as the nominal firemain pressure

firemain system57
Firemain System

2. Piping: Piping is normally 5 inches to 8 inches CU-NI (a copper nickel alloy) that is highly resistant to corrosion.

3. Risers: Risers are vertical sections of piping that lead to spaces located above the firemain system . Cutout valves are installed to isolate risers from the firemain

firemain system58
Firemain System

4. Fire-plugs: Fire-plugs come in 1-1/2” or 2-1/2” sizes. On larger ships they are located so any point of the ship can be reached with 100 or 50 feet of hose from each of two or more fire-plugs.

firemain system59
Firemain System

5. Fire Stations: Stations consist of a fire-plug and attached fire hoses (1-1/2” or 2-12”). Salt water enters the fire-plug via a riser from the firemain system. Normally used to provide firemain to the hose, but in the event of loss of firemain firefighting water can be rigged from an outside source to the firemain.

firemain system60
Firemain System

6. Firemain Valves (cutout valves): These globe or butterfly valves are used for sectionalization / isolation of the firemain.

firemain system61
Firemain System

Types of the Firemain Systems:

1. Single Main

2. Horizontal Loop

3. Vertical Loop

4. Composite

5. Multiple Horizontal Loop

firemain system63
Firemain System

DC Features of the Firemain System:

1. Sectionalization: The division of the firemain system into the maximum number of independent sections

It Prevents the loss of the entire firemain if one

section is damaged by securing selected

system cutout valves

firemain system64
Firemain System

2. Isolation: The process of cutting out a damaged portion of the firemain so water loss and / or flooding is stopped and the undamaged portion of that section can continue to function.

Once a break is isolated, it can be easily bypassed by jumper hoses.

firemain system65
Firemain System

Regular firehoses are used as jumpers. The firehoses are normally coupled to the nearest available fire-plug, and cutout valves are used to isolate the damaged installed piping.

dc equipment and protective clothing
DC Equipment and Protective Clothing

Overview:

In a DC situation, the knowledge one possesses regarding DC equipment, breathing devices, and protective clothing may indeed save not only their life, but those of their shipmates.

dc equipment and protective clothing67
DC Equipment and Protective Clothing

Fire - Public Enemy #1:

Whether at sea or inport there is no greater destructive force to a ship than that created by a fire.

Fire-fighting is an “all- hands” evolution which relies on individuals to properly employ DC equipment associated with combating a fire.

breathing devices
Breathing Devices

1. EEBD:

Emergency Escape Breathing Devices (EEBDs)

are life-saving equipment designed to provide 15 minutes of breathable air and protection from surrounding hostile toxic atmospheres to personnel while escaping from below decks.

EEBDs are designed as a one-time use, throw-

away device, and are not intended for use while

fighting a fire.

breathing devices70
Breathing Devices

2. OBA:

Oxygen Breathing Apparatus (OBA) is an entirely self-contained breathing apparatus which enables the wearer to breath independently of the outside air. It produces its own oxygen, thereby allowing personnel to enter a compartment containing smoke, fire, or those having a low oxygen content.

breathing devices71
Breathing Devices

2. OBA:

- Each Canister allows the wearer to breathe

adequately for a max. of 60 minutes, however

the actual duration is proportional to the work

level.

- It is because the exertion and hard work

associated with fire-fighting that each canister

is subsequently recognized as safely providing

30 minutes of oxygen to the firefighter.-

protective clothing
Protective Clothing

FFE:

The firefighter’s ensemble (FFE) provides the firefighter with greater protection from exposure to heat, steam, water, sharp objects, debris, and flames. The ensemble resembles those worn by civilian firefighters, composed of a one-piece jumper, protective hood, gloves, boots, and helmet.

extinguishing agents and equipment
Extinguishing Agents and Equipment

Water:

Water is the extinguishing agent of choice when combating class Alpha fires. Salt water from the ocean is drawn in by means of a pump, pressurized, and discharged through hoses and nozzles. Water is also used when combating class Delta fires. During these fires, the appropriate action is simply to jettison the burning object overboard.

extinguishing agents and equipment75
Extinguishing Agents and Equipment

P-250 mod 2 Pump:

The P-250 pump is an internal combustion engine that is designed to take a suction from the sea to provide water for fire-fighting purpose. The P-250 draws a large volume of water by means of a suction hose which is placed over the side of the ship, pressurizes the column, and discharges it through an exit port, which can be connected to standard hose or fitting.

extinguishing agents and equipment76
Extinguishing Agents and Equipment

P-250 mod 2 Pump:

- The 55 horsepower engine is capable of

pumping 250 gallons per minute at 125 psi.

- The P-250 is found on the weather decks of

vessels in large full cover containers.

extinguishing agents and equipment77
Extinguishing Agents and Equipment

P-100 Pump:

The P-100 replaced the P250 on board the Navy ships . However on board some YPs we still use the P250. P100 pump is designated to be:

- lightweight (16 pounds)

- reliable

- easy to operated

- capable to use JP% or DFM as fuel

extinguishing agents and equipment78
Extinguishing Agents and Equipment

The pump is capable of pumping 275 gallons per minute at 45 PSI

Disadvantage

The pump is not intended to provide water to ship’s firemain .

extinguishing agents and equipment80
Extinguishing Agents and Equipment

Fire Hoses:

The orange fire-fighting hoses used onboard ships are made of rubber synthetic which is abrasive-proof and cold resistant.

The standard Navy fire hose comes in two sizes, reflecting the diameter of the hose:

1. 1-1/2”

2. 2-1/2”

extinguishing agents and equipment81
Extinguishing Agents and Equipment

Fire Hoses:

-The standard length of fire hose is 50 feet,

although other lengths can be found.

- The hoses can be found ready to be connected

to fire-plugs at fire stations located

throughout the ship.

extinguishing agents and equipment82
Extinguishing Agents and Equipment

Variable Nozzles:

- The bail operated Vari-nozzle

has a pistol grip on the underside

of the nozzle for better control

of the fire-fighting water discharge.

- The two-position bail is closed when forward

and opened when back. The discharge

pattern is regulated by a variable nozzle

which rotates to provide numerous spray

patterns from wide angle to solid stream.

extinguishing agents and equipment83
Extinguishing Agents and Equipment

Portable CO2 Fire Extinguishers:

The standard Navy portable CO2 fire extinguisher is primarily used in combating class Charlie fires, and in limited cases against class Alpha fires.

- Each extinguisher has a rated capacity of 15

pounds of CO2, providing an effective range of four to six feet, and lasting approximately 45 seconds during continuous use.

extinguishing agents and equipment85
Extinguishing Agents and Equipment

Dry Chemical (PKP) Extinguishers:

Portable dry chemical extinguishers are primarily used on class Bravo fires. The dry potassium bicarbonate powder (PKP), interrupts the chemical reaction of a fire and thereby slows down combustion.

The 18 and 27 pound extinguishers contain a cartridge containing CO2 which is used to

expel the powder from the canister.

extinguishing agents and equipment86
Extinguishing Agents and Equipment

Dry Chemical (PKP) Extinguishers:

- The max effective range is 18 feet, and each

extinguisher lasts approx. 18 seconds during

continuous use.

PKP extinguishers are found at various

locations onboard ships, especially near

engineering spaces, galleys, and flammable

store lockers.

how to activate a portable fire extinguisher
How to Activate a Portable Fire Extinguisher

1. The pin at the top should be removed from the valve, and the cylinder placed on the deck to prevent static electricity.

how to activate a portable fire extinguisher89
How to Activate a Portable Fire Extinguisher

2. When ready, one hand should grasp the horn by the handle to direct the flow of CO2 to the BASE of the fire

extinguishing agents and equipment92
Extinguishing Agents and Equipment

AFFF Fire Extinguishing systems:

Aqueous Film Forming Foam, commonly referred to as light water, is used primarily against class Bravo fires.

- AFFF is combined with water, in the precise

ration of 6% AFFF to 94% water, to produce

foam.

extinguishing agents and equipment93
Extinguishing Agents and Equipment

AFFF Fire Extinguishing systems:

Placing this layer of foam on top of a flammable liquid, serves a dual purpose.

- First, the AFFF / water mixture produces a

film on the surface of the flammable liquid

which prevents the escape of vapors.

- Second, the layer of foam effectively keeps

oxygen from the fuel source.

extinguishing agents and equipment94
Extinguishing Agents and Equipment

AFFF Fire Extinguishing systems:

These two actions inhibit the combustion process, ultimately extinguishing the fire. AFFF can be applied easily and quickly by a number of different systems:

- Inline Eductor

- Bilge Sprinkling System

- Installed AFFF System

extinguishing agents and equipment96
Extinguishing Agents and Equipment

Halon 1301:

The Halon 1301 system is a fixed DC system which is used primarily against class Bravo fires. Halon is a halogenated hydrocarbon stored as a liquid super-pressurized with nitrogen in cylinders ranging from 10 to 125 pounds in engineering spaces.

extinguishing agents and equipment97
Extinguishing Agents and Equipment

Halon 1301:

Halon 1301 is particularly effective against large, flammable liquid fires, and is therefore found in nearly all fuel compartments, propulsion spaces and other similar areas.

extinguishing agents and equipment98
Extinguishing Agents and Equipment

Halon 1301:

- Upon activation of the system, and a

subsequent time delay, Halon is released into

the compartment as a colorless, odorless gas

with a density 5 times that of air.

- This chemically inhibits the flame front, not

allowing the chemical chain reaction to occur.

extinguishing agents and equipment99
Extinguishing Agents and Equipment

Halon 1301:

- Because Halon does not smother a fire, it

is vital that the compartment is completely

air-tight before the system is activated, so

that the gas does not escape and allow

the fire to reflash.

extinguishing agents and equipment100
Extinguishing Agents and Equipment

Range Guard Fire Extinguishing System:

The range guard fire system is a fixed fire extinguishing that is specifically designed for use with shipboard galley/pantry deep fat fryers. The system responds automatically to the detection of a fire, or it can be manually operated by the use of manual controls.

extinguishing agents and equipment101
Extinguishing Agents and Equipment

Range Guard Fire Extinguishing System:

- A fire extinguishing chemical, aqueous potassium carbonate (APC), is discharged from

cylinders through nozzles located over the deep fat fryers.

- When APC comes in contact with the burning oils in the fryer, a soapy foam is formed. This prevents air from mixing with the oil, inhibits the combustion, and ultimately extinguishes the fire.

flooding102
Flooding

Flooding may occur from a number of causes:

- Underwater or waterline hull damage

flooding103
Flooding

- Ruptured water piping

flooding104
Flooding

- The use of large quantities of water for

Fire-fighting or counter-flooding

flooding105
Flooding

If the ship suffers extensive damage, such that it does not stop listing, trimming, or settling in the water, chances are that it will sink within minutes. It is because of these dramatic consequences that all hands must be prepared to use the available assets o combat the effects of flooding and progressive flooding.

flooding equipment
Flooding Equipment

Shoring:

Shoring is often used onboard ships to:

- support ruptured decks

- strengthen weakened bulkheads

- build up temporary decks and bulkheads

against the sea

- support hatches doors

- provide support for equipment that has broken

loose.

flooding equipment108
Flooding Equipment

Shoring:

The basic materials required for shoring are:

- shores - portable beam

- wedge - triangular block

- shole - rectangular block

- strongback - wooden piece used to distribute

pressure from a shore

flooding equipment109
Flooding Equipment

Portable Eductors:

Portable eductors are jet-type pumps used to move liquid from one place to another by entraining the pumped liquid in a rapid flowing stream of water (Venturi Effect).

flooding equipment110
Flooding Equipment

Portable Eductors:

These portable eductors are ideally suited for removing liquid from a flooded compartment because of their ability to pump liquids containing small particles of foreign matter in addition to contaminated water.

flooding equipment111
Flooding Equipment

Portable Eductors:

Since the operating medium of an eductor is water under pressure, they can be actuated through fire hoses by either firemain pressure or the discharge of a P-250 pump.

flooding equipment112
Flooding Equipment

Portable Eductors: Two Types

1. Single-jet - Uses a single jet around the periphery of the vacuum chamber. A strainer prevents debris from being sucked into the eductor, and a foot valve prevents back-flooding.

flooding equipment113
Flooding Equipment

2. Peri-jet eductor - Uses six jets around the periphery of the vacuum chamber. The peri-jet is approximately 7% more efficient than the single-jet eductor, but does not have a strainer or foot valve.

flooding equipment114
Flooding Equipment

Portable Electric Submersible Pump:

The portable electric sub-pump is used aboard ships for dewatering flooded compartments that do not have an installed drainage system.

- It is a centrifugal pump driven by a constant

speed AC or DC motor.

- The discharged liquid is routed overboard via a 2-1/2” fire hose.

chemical biological radiological cbr
Chemical/Biological/Radiological (CBR)

Controlling the effects of a CBR attack involves limiting the exposure of vital areas of the ship and personnel to the agent, as well as removing the contaminant from the vessel.

A practical knowledge of the protective masks, clothing, and equipment used in the event of a CBR attack is crucial to the survivability of the crew.

chemical biological radiological cbr116
Chemical/Biological/Radiological (CBR)

Breathing Devices and Protective Clothing

Protective Masks:

The protective masks found onboard naval vessels are worn during CBR attacks. These rubber masks remove contaminants from the environmental air through attached canisters. The protective mask currently found onboard ship is:

MCU-2/P protective mask

chemical biological radiological cbr117
Chemical/Biological/Radiological (CBR)

Breathing Devices and Protective Clothing

MCU-2/P protective mask:

This unit uses one C2 canister which also filters vapors, aerosols, and particulate matter but uses a standard NATO thread for canister replacement. Each canister will filter the environmental air safely for 30 days.

chemical biological radiological cbr118
Chemical/Biological/Radiological (CBR)

Breathing Devices and Protective Clothing

Chemical Protective Overgarment (CPO):

The CPO is a light-weight, charcoal-lined suit offering protection against chemical and biological agents only.

chemical biological radiological cbr119
Chemical/Biological/Radiological (CBR)

Breathing Devices and Protective Clothing

Chemical Protective Overgarment (CPO):

The suit, when worn in conjunction with a protective mask,, chemical protective gloves, and chemical protective boots, affords the wearer the maximum protection against these environments

chemical biological radiological cbr120
Chemical/Biological/Radiological (CBR)

Breathing Devices and Protective Clothing

Chemical Protective Overgarment (CPO):

In a contaminated environment the CPO provides 6 hours of protection from agent penetration.

Because of the reduced effectiveness when wet, wet weather clothing should be worn over the CPO when contact with water is inevitable.

chemical biological radiological cbr121
Chemical/Biological/Radiological (CBR)

Equipment

Countermeasure Washdown System:

The countermeasure washdown system is a series of “sprinklers” located on the weather decks of ships which showers the vessel with salt water.

chemical biological radiological cbr122
Chemical/Biological/Radiological (CBR)

Equipment

Countermeasure Washdown System:

- Prior to a CBR attack the system is activated to

lay a protective coating of water on the vessel.

- After the attack the system is again activated to

flush and remove the contaminant agents.

chemical biological radiological cbr123
Chemical/Biological/Radiological (CBR)

Equipment

Countermeasure Wash-down System:

This serves to remove a majority of the contaminants, the remainder of which is scrubbed by the decontamination teams.