Programming a Computer for Playing Chess By Claude E. Shannon Programming a Computer for Playing Chess Published in “Philosophical Magazine”, in 1950. Considered as an important milestone in computer chess programming About the paper
By Claude E. Shannon
Chess is generally considered to require “thinking” for a skilful play. A solution to this problem will force us to admit that machine thinks, or further restrict the concept of “thinking”
“Accessible” – The world state is fully accessible to the program or agent (nothing hidden)
The F.I.D.E. Laws of Chess
the game is drawn when a player having the move claims a draw and demonstrates that at least [the last?] 50 consecutive moves have been made by each side without the capture of any piece and without the movement of any pawn. This number of 50 moves can be increased for certain positions, provided that this increase in number and these positions have been clearly announced by the organisers before the event starts.
For any given position, either:
If white has a winning move – make it.
Otherwise – choose to “pass”.
By the symmetry Black is faced with the same position white just had…
Since white had no winning move before, Black has none now.
Hence, black at best can draw
0, drawn position
-1, lost position
f(P) =Evaluation function - f(P)
200(K-K') + 9(Q-Q') + 5(R-R') + 3(B-B'+N-N') + (P-P') - 0.5(D-D'+S-S'+I-I') + 0.1(M-M') + ...
Define a function g(P) of a position which determines whether approximate stability exists:
create some distribution and play by it