chapter 8 innovative ec systems from e government and e learning to consumer to consumer commerce l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 8 Innovative EC Systems: From E-Government and E-Learning to Consumer-to-Consumer Commerce PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 8 Innovative EC Systems: From E-Government and E-Learning to Consumer-to-Consumer Commerce

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 66

Chapter 8 Innovative EC Systems: From E-Government and E-Learning to Consumer-to-Consumer Commerce - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 728 Views
  • Uploaded on

Chapter 8 Innovative EC Systems: From E-Government and E-Learning to Consumer-to-Consumer Commerce. Jason C.H. Chen , Ph.D. Professor of MIS Graduate School of Business Gonzaga University Spokane, WA 99223 USA chen@jepson.gonzaga.edu. Learning Objectives.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

Chapter 8 Innovative EC Systems: From E-Government and E-Learning to Consumer-to-Consumer Commerce


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
chapter 8 innovative ec systems from e government and e learning to consumer to consumer commerce

Chapter 8 Innovative EC Systems: From E-Government and E-Learning to Consumer-to-Consumer Commerce

Jason C.H. Chen, Ph.D.

Professor of MIS

Graduate School of Business

Gonzaga University

Spokane, WA 99223 USA

chen@jepson.gonzaga.edu

learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Describe various e-government initiatives.
  • Describe e-learning, virtual universities, and e-training.
  • Describe online publishing and e-books.
  • Discuss wikis and blogging.
  • Describe knowledge management and dissemination as an e-business.
  • Describe C2C activities.
  • Describe peer-to-peer networks and applications.
8 1 e government an overview
8.1 E-Government: An Overview
  • e-government

E-commerce model in which a government entity buys or provides goods, services, or information to businesses or individual citizens

e government an overview
E-Government: An Overview
  • Several major categories fit within this broad definition of e-government:
    • government-to-citizens (G2C)

E-government category that includes all the interactions between a government and its citizens

    • Government-to-business (G2B)
    • Government-to-government (G2G)
    • Government-to-employees (G2E)
    • Internal Efficiency and Effectiveness (IEE – Intrabusiness)
e government an overview5
E-Government: An Overview
  • government-to-citizens (G2C)

E-government category that includes all the interactions between a government and its citizens

  • electronic voting

Voting process that involves many steps ranging from registering, preparing, voting, and counting (voting and counting are all done electronically)

  • Netizen

A citizen surfing the Internet

  • Electronic benefits transfer
e government an overview6
E-Government: An Overview
  • government-to-business (G2B)

E-government category that includes interactions between governments and businesses (government selling to businesses and providing them with services and businesses selling products and services to government)

e government an overview7
E-Government: An Overview
  • Government-to-Business (G2B)
    • Government e-procurement
    • Group purchasing

eFAST service conducts reverse auctions(sellers bid) for aggregated orders

    • Forward e-auctions

auction surplus or other goods

    • Tax collection and management

electronic filing of taxes is now available in over 100 countries

slide8

Group Purchasing Organization Process

? in eG

[Stage1-b]

[Stage1-a]

Forecast Demand

RFQ

G

P

O

B

u

y

e

r

RFQ

Bid

Response

Confirm

(Price OK)

Negotiate Contract

S

Place Orders

u

Process Orders

p

Shipping Orders

p

Receiving Orders

. . .

l

Invoicing

Payment

RFQ

i

VPTM

e

[Stage3]

[Stage2]

r

Shipping / Receiving Orders

Returns

/

S

Refund Process

Shipping / Receiving Orders

e

Invoice

l

Payment

l

Returns

e

r

[Stage4]

Refund Process

VPTM : Vender Performance Tracking & Management

e government an overview9
E-Government: An Overview
  • government-to-government (G2G)

E-government category that includes activities within government units and those between governments

  • government-to-employees (G2E)

E-government category that includes activities and services between government units and their employees

e government an overview10
E-Government: An Overview
  • Government-to-Employees (G2E)
    • Internal efficiency and effectiveness
      • E-payroll
      • E-records management
      • E-training
      • Enterprise case management
      • Integrated acquisition
      • Integrated human resources
      • One-stop recruitment
  • Facilitating Homeland Security
slide11

Stages of Moving to E-Business and to E-Government

Wilcocks, Sauer and Associates (2000)

evolution of e business and to e government
Evolution of E-Business andto E-Government
  • With the growth of the Internet more businesses are using it to transact business between partners (B2B – see Figure 7.2).
  • Now, the term e-business refers to business conducted over the Internet.
  • Business on the Internet has evolved through a number of stages:
    • : Stage I
    • : Stage II
    • : Stage III
    • Catalyst for Industry Restructuring: Stage IV

Content Provider

Transaction Forum

Integrator

8 2 implementing e government
8.2 Implementing E-Government
  • Transformation process

Stage 1: Information publishing/dissemination

Stage 2: “Official” two-way transactions with one department at a time

Stage 3: Multipurpose portals

Stage 4: Portal personalization

Stage 5: Clustering of common services

Stage 6: Full integration and enterprise transformation

slide14

Exhibit 8.4 The Stage of E-Government

Eminence of Web-based

Applications

STAGE 6

Full Enterprise

Transformation

STAGE 5

Portals

Clustering of

Common

Service

High

STAGE 4

Portals

Personalization

STAGE 3

Multipurpose

Portals

STAGE 2

“Official” Two-Way

Transactions

STAGE 1

Information

Publishing

Low

Low

High

Degree of Enterprise transformation

Source: Wong, W.Y. At the Dawn of E-Government. New York: Deloitte Research, Deloitte & Touche, 2000.

implementing e government cont
Implementing E-Government(cont.)
  • Implementation issues
    • Transformation speed
    • G2B implementation
      • Easier than implementation of
    • Security and privacy issues
    • Wireless applications
      • B2E applications, especially for field employees
    • Business aspects
  • Citizen Adoption of E-Government
  • Non–Internet E-Government
  • slow
  • G2C
slide16

Exhibit (EXTRA) E-Government Adoption

Institutional

Structures

Culture

(uncertainty

Avoidance)

Culture

(power distance

acceptance)

Perceived

Ease of Use

Disposition to

Trust

Intention to Receive

E-government information

Perceived

Usefulness

Intention to Request

E-government Service

Characteristics-

based Trust

Trust in

E-government

INTENTION TO ENGAGE E-GOVERNMENT

Perceived

Behavioral

Control

Experience

(familiarity)

Initial versus

Repeat User

Perceived

Risk

Direct effect

Degree of

Intrusiveness

Moderating effect

8 3 e learning
8.3 E-Learning
  • e-learning

The online delivery of information for purposes of education, training, or knowledge management

slide19

Learning as a process

What will be

the result?

What should I learn?

The Learning Process

Focus

Environment

Technique

How can I learn?

Why should I learn?

Source: A Learning process model to achieve continuous improvement and innovation, B. Buckler, The Learning Organization

e learning20
E-Learning
  • Benefits of E-Learning
    • Time reduction
    • Large volume and diversity
    • Cost reduction
    • Higher content retention
    • Flexibility
    • Updated and consistent material
    • Fear-free environment
e learning cont
E-Learning(cont.)
  • Drawbacks and challenges of e-learning
    • Need for instructor retraining
    • Equipment needs and support services
    • Assessment
    • Maintenance and updating
    • Protection of intellectual property
    • Computer literacy
    • Student retention
  • Lack of face-to-face interaction and campus life
e learning22
E-Learning
  • Why E-Learning Fails
    • Believing that e-learning is always a cheaper learning or training alternative
    • Overestimating what e-learning can accomplish
    • Overlooking the shortcomings of self-study
    • Failing to look beyond the course paradigms
    • Viewing content as a commodity
    • Ignoring technology tools for e-learning or fixating too much on technology as a solution
    • Assuming that learned knowledge will be applied
e learning23
E-Learning
  • distance learning

Formal education that takes place off campus, usually, but not always, through online resources

  • virtual university

An online university from which students take classes from home or other off-site locations, usually via the Internet

e learning24
E-Learning
  • Online Corporate Training
    • The drivers of e-training
      • Technological change
      • Competition and cost pressures
      • Globalization
      • Continual learning
      • Network connectivity
e learning25
E-Learning
  • edutainment

The combination of education and entertainment, often through games

  • E-Learning Tools
    • IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning 2.6
    • ComputerPREP
    • Macromedia
    • eCollege
    • Artificial Life
creating collaborative learning communities

Business

Strategy &

Objectives

Group &

Individual

Competencies

Learning

Objectives

Group

Processes

Supporting

Technology

Creating Collaborative Learning Communities
slide27

Risk and Return in the “Old World of Business”

Using Information Technology for

Optimization-Based Efficiencies

High

Reengineering

Rationalization

Risk

Automation

Low

Low

High

Return

slide28

REENGINEERING

IT-Intensive Radical Redesign

KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

for

“Paradigm Shifts”

Radical Rethinking of the Business

and Organization

for a “World of Re-everything”

RATIONALIZATION

Streamlining Bottlenecks

AUTOMATION

Replacing humans with machines

From “Old World” to E-World of Business:

Knowledge Management for “Paradigm Shifts”

“Old World”

of Business

E-World

of Business

8 4 online publishing and e books
8.4 Online Publishing and E-Books
  • online publishing

The electronic delivery of newspapers, magazines, books, news, music, videos, and other digitizable information over the Internet

  • e-zines

Electronic magazine or newsletter delivered over the Internet via e-mail

e books
E-Books
  • E-book:A book in digital form that can be read on a computer screen or on a special device
  • E-books can be delivered and read via:
    • Web download
    • Web access
    • Dedicated reader
    • General-purpose reader
    • Web server
online publishing and e books
Online Publishing and E-Books
  • Types of E-Books
    • Traditional book format
    • Online bookshelf
    • The download
    • The Rubics-cube hyperlink book
    • The interactive, build-your-own (BYO) decision book
    • The online reference book model
online publishing and e books32
Online Publishing and E-Books
  • Print-on-Demand
    • A publisher creates a digital master, typically in Adobe Systems’ Acrobat format, and sends it to a specialized print-on-demand company. The files are stored on the printing company’s network
    • When an order is placed, a print-on-demand machine prints out the text of the document or book and then covers, binds, and trims it. The entire process can take about a minute for a 300-page book
    • The book is packaged and shipped to the publisher or the consumer
online publishing and e books33
Online Publishing and E-Books
  • Advantages and Limitations of

E-Books

  • E-Book Issues
  • Digital Libraries
e books cont
E-Books (cont.)
  • How to protect the publisher’s/author’s copyright
  • How to distribute and sell e-books
  • How much to charge and collect payment for an
  • e-book
  • How to best support navigation in an e-book
  • Which standards to use
  • How to increase reading speed
  • How to deal with resistance to change
  • How to design an e-book
  • How publishers can justify e-books in terms of profit and market share
  • How to secure content
  • E-book issues
online publishing and e books35
Online Publishing and E-Books
  • podcast

A media file that is distributed over the Internet using syndication feeds for playback on mobile devices and personal computers. As with the term radio, it can mean both the content and the method of syndication

  • podcaster

The host or author of a podcast

break 1
BREAK-1
  • Application Case 8.1: Contract Management in Australia (p.369)
8 5 blogs and wikis
8.5 Blogs and Wikis
  • Weblogging/blogging:Technology for personal publishing on the Internet
  • Blog:
    • Very popular after terrorist attacks of 9/11
    • Blogs comfort people in times of stress
    • Blogs is becoming easier and easier

A personal Web site that is open to the public to read and to interact with; dedicated to specific topics or issues

blogs and wikis
Blogs and Wikis
  • Seven principles for building effective blogs:
    • Focus intently on a narrow niche, ideally one whose audience has a predilection for high-margin products
    • Set up blogs so that each post gets its own permanent URL
    • Think of a blog as a database, not a newspaper-like collection of dispatches
    • Blog frequently and regularly, at least half a dozen posts every weekday
    • Use striking images that liven up the pages and attract readers
    • Enable comments and interact with readers
    • Make friends with other bloggers, online and off
blogs and wikis39
Blogs and Wikis
  • wikilog (wikiblog or wiki)

A blog that allows everyone to participate as a peer; anyone may add, delete, or change content.

  • Commercial uses of blogs
  • Potential risks of blogs
    • Establish comprehensive, written rules and policies
    • Educate employees about blog-related risks, rules, and regulations
    • Enforce blog policy with disciplinary action and technology
  • Bloggers and politics
8 6 knowledge management and e commerce
8.6 Knowledge Management and E-Commerce
  • knowledge management (KM)

The process of capturing or creating knowledge, storing it, updating it constantly, interpreting it, and using it whenever necessary

  • Organizational knowledge base

The repository for an enterprise’s accumulated knowledge

slide41

Focus on e-Business Applications

Knowledge Management/Business Intelligence

E-Commerce

E-Customer Relationship

Procurement

Network

Trading

Network

E-Channel

Management

Businesses & Consumers (CRM)

Businesses (SRM)

M:1

M:N

1:N

E-Portal Management

E-Business, E-Services

SCM/ERP/Legacy Appls

slide42

Information

Technology

Knowledge

Management

Creativity and

Innovation

Knowledge Management and E-Business Strategy

E-Business

Strategy

slide43

Industrial Business

E-Business

Strategy

Technology

Management

Knowledge

Assets

Organizations

Prediction

Convergence

Compliance

Utilization

Tangibles

Structure

“Anticipation of Surprise”

Divergence

Self-Control

Creation and Renewal

Intangibles

Edge of Chaos

Transitions to the World of E-Business

figure the four modes of knowledge conversion

TO

Explicit Knowledge

Tacit Knowledge

Socialization

(Sympathized Knowledge)

Externalization

(Conceptual Knowledge)

Tacit Knowledge

Transferring tacit knowledge through shared experiences, apprenticeships, mentoring relationships, on–the-job training, “Talking at the water cooler”

Articulating and thereby capturing tacit knowledge through use of metaphors, analogies, and models

FROM

Combination

(Systematic Knowledge)

Internalization

(Operational Knowledge)

Converting explicit knowledge into tacit knowledge; learning by doing; studying previously captured explicit knowledge (manuals, documentation) to gain technical know-how

Combining existing explicit knowledge through exchange and synthesis into new explicit knowledge

Explicit Knowledge

Figure: The four modes of knowledge conversion

Source: Ikujiro Nonaka and Hirotaka Takeuchi, The Knowledge-Creating Company, 1995

slide45

Formal and informal representations (models, notes, web pages, etc. )

Externalization

tacit

explicit

Model resolution,Presentation networking

Principal of Escalation

Socialization

Combination

tacit

explicit

Errorobservation

Internalization

Model-based Workflow Support, Navigation Support

Figure: Organizational Knowledge Creation and its Support

Source: Klamma, R., Jarke M., (1998), “Supporting Organizational Learning Processes through Failure Management.”=

knowledge management and e commerce
Knowledge Management and E-Commerce
  • Core knowledge management activities for companies doing EC should include the following electronically supported activities:
    • Knowledge creation
    • Knowledge capture and codification
    • Knowledge classification
    • Knowledge distribution
    • Knowledge utilization
    • Knowledge evolution
knowledge management and e commerce47
Knowledge Management and E-Commerce
  • knowledge portal

A single-point-of-access software system intended to provide timely access to information and to support communities of knowledge workers

  • information intelligence

Information, data, knowledge, and semantic infrastructure that enable organizations to create more business applications

knowledge management and e commerce49
Knowledge Management and E-Commerce
  • KM has four tasks:
    • Creating knowledge repositories where knowledge can be stored and retrieved easily
    • Enhancing a knowledge environment in order to conduct more effective knowledge creation, transfer, and use
    • Managing knowledge as an asset so as to increase the effective use of knowledge assets over time
    • Improving knowledge access to facilitate its transfer between individuals
knowledge management and e commerce50
Knowledge Management and E-Commerce
  • Online Advice and Consulting
    • Medical advice
    • Management consulting
    • Legal advice
    • Gurus and answers to queries
    • Financial advice
    • Other advisory services
knowledge management and e commerce51
Knowledge Management and E-Commerce
  • Employees’ Knowledge Networks and Expert Advice within Organizations
    • expert location systems

Interactive computerized systems that help employees find and connect with colleagues who have expertise required for specific problems—whether they are across the country or across the room—in order to solve specific, critical business problems in seconds

knowledge management and e commerce53
Knowledge Management and E-Commerce
  • desktop search

Search tools that search the contents of a user’s or organization’s computer files rather than searching the Internet. The emphasis is on finding all the information that is available on the user’s PC, including Web browser histories, e-mail archives, and word-processor documents, as well as in all internal files and databases

km and portals

KM

(public)

KM

(private)

(capture, retain, categorize, retrieve, and display information)

KM and Portals

Users

Portal

KM

business intelligence
BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE
  • Business intelligence – information that people use to support their decision-making efforts
  • Principle BI enablers include:
    • Technology
    • People
    • Culture
working not just harder
Working , Not just Harder

Smarter

  • Overlapping Human/Organizational (Culture, Process)/ Technological factors in BI/KM:

PEOPLE

ORGANIZATIONAL

PROCESSES

TECHNOLOGY

  • Knowledge

N

essential value propositions for a successful company
Essential Value Propositions for a Successful Company
  • Business
  • Competency
    • Set corporate goals and get executive sponsorship for the initiative

Model

Core

  • Execution
slide58

Core

competency

IT

People

Culture

Relationship between the Organizational Knowledge and Core Competency

Can be transferred and reused efficiently and effectively across functional areas

(sharing and collaboration)

A specific business context

Best Practices

Organizational

knowledge

8 7 customer to customer e commerce
8.7 Customer-to-Customer E-Commerce
  • customer-to-customer (C2C)

E-commerce model in which consumers sell directly to other consumers

  • C2C Auctions
    • general sites (eBay.com, auctionanything.com)
    • specialized sites (buyit.com, bid2bid.com)
  • Classified Ads
  • Personal Services
  • C2C Exchanges
  • Selling Virtual Properties
  • Support Services for C2C

C2C

8 8 networks and applications

Peer-to-Peer

Peer-to-peer

8.8 Networks and Applications
  • (P2P):A network architecture in which workstations (or PCs) share data and processing with each other directly rather than through a central server

Person2Person

People2People

Point2Point

P2P

peer to peer networks and applications cont
Peer-to-Peer Networks and Applications (cont.)
  • Characteristics of P2P systems
    • provide for real-time access to other users (e.g., instant messaging)
    • maximize the use of physical attributes such as processor cycles, storage space, bandwidth, and location on the network
    • employ user interfaces that load outside of a Web browser
    • address the need to reach content resources located on the Internet periphery
    • support “cross-networking” protocols
    • promote popular interest by doing something new or exciting
peer to peer networks and applications cont63
Peer-to-Peer Networks and Applications (cont.)
  • Models of P2P applications
    • Collaboration
    • Content distribution
    • Business process automation
    • Distributed search
peer to peer networks and applications cont64
Peer-to-Peer Networks and Applications (cont.)
  • Intrabusiness P2P applications

companies are using P2P to facilitate internal collaboration

  • B2B P2P applications

enable companies to store documents in-house instead of on an unknown, and possibly unsecured, server

  • B2C P2P applications
    • Marketing
    • Advertising
    • B2C payments
break 2
BREAK-2
  • Application Case 8.6: Online Knowledge Sharing at Xerox (p.394)
managerial issues
Managerial Issues
  • Can we blog for business?
  • Are there e-learning and e-training opportunities?
  • Can we capitalize on C2C?
  • How well are we managing our knowledge?
  • What are the e-government opportunities?