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Ch. 8 Sociological Foundations of PE & Sport. 1. Sport as a Socializing force in American Culture… 2. What is human nature in and through sport? 3. Social Problems Caused by Sports and How They Are Handled?. What Sport Does for People. Emotional release Affirmation of identity

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ch 8 sociological foundations of pe sport

Ch. 8 Sociological Foundations of PE & Sport

1. Sport as a Socializing force in American Culture…

2. What is human nature in and through sport?

3. Social Problems Caused by Sports and How They Are Handled?

what sport does for people
What Sport Does for People
  • Emotional release
  • Affirmation of identity
  • Social control
  • Socialization
  • Agent for change
  • Collective conscious
  • Success
definition scope of sport sociology
Definition & Scope of Sport Sociology
  • Sociology is the study of people, groups, institutions, and human activities in terms of social behavior and social order within society
  • Many sport sociologist have used critical inquiry to examine and interpret the issues (expose the abuses, discriminations, and injustices of contemporary sport)
sport sociology questions
Sport Sociology Questions
  • Does sport build character?
  • Does sport help minorities become more fully integrated into society?
  • How does the mass media affect sport?
  • How does youth sport influence children’s lives?
  • How are politics and sports interrelated?
  • How does sport influence athletes’ academic achievements?
other social concerns with sports and schools
Other Social Concerns With Sports and Schools
  • Overemphasis on winning
  • Restriction of opportunity
  • Drug abuse
  • Pay to play $$$
  • Quality of leadership?
  • Educational Sport vs. “Big Business Sport”
  • Exploitation of athletes
  • Media influence
  • Lifetime injuries
Abuses of Sport
    • Direct & Indirect Payments to Stud. Athletes
    • Coaches of Questionable Morals
    • Steroids & Blood Doping
  • Overemphasis on School Sports Focus
    • Valued for Only Victory & Fame Not the Enjoyment of Activity Played
  • Overemphasis on Competitive Sports in PE
    • Promotion of Physical Competition Not Physical Education
  • Difficult Relationship Between PE & Sport
    • Sharing Facilities/Equipment/Budgets/Faculty
    • Each is Affected by the Public Reputation of the Other
Endless School Budget Crisis
  • Teacher Competence
  • Time Away From PE
      • Decline in the Breadth of School Programs
      • Increased Health Problems
Extreme Body Images
    • Movies/Magazines – Beyond Normal Limits
    • Eating Disorders
    • The Age of Artificial Enhancements
  • Decreased Teaching Time
    • Hard to Reach Educational Goals
    • Lifestyle Programming Suffers
  • Teacher/Coach Role Conflict
    • Athletes are Treated Differently Then Students
    • Leadership Style Differs as well
  • School Violence
    • Against Students and Teachers Alike
    • Not Just in Urban Schools Anymore
political economy of american sport
Political Economy of American Sport
  • All Pro sport leagues operate as “Cartels” (groups of firms that organize together to control production, sales, and wages)
    • Violates the intent of antitrust laws that are illegal in most businesses
    • Courts have protected sport leagues from antitrust accusations because its recognized as a sport not a business!
      • Each league can negotiate TV contracts for the entire league (i.e. NFL pckg-DirecTV)
      • “Reserve Clause” – Owners control players job mobility – Courts struck this down in 1976
Pro sports leagues operate as “Cartels” in three major ways:

1. Restrict interteam competition for players by controlling the rights of workers (players)

      • Drafts, Contracts, Trades

2. Act in concert to admit or deny new teams, and control the location and relocation of teams

3. They divide local and regional media markets, as well as negotiate media fees

-End Here-

social issues with sport continued
Social Issues with Sport Continued...
  • “Most social and economic analyses have concluded that the prime beneficiaries of sport facilities are a small group of wealthy individuals and that those who disproportionately bear the costs are low-income citizens...
  • ...economists further conclude that major league sports frequently have no significant positive impact on a city’s economy and even drain funds from other municipal projects”
        • “Power & Ideology in American Sport” by George Sage, 1998, Human Kinetics.
          • See also:
        • Journal article by George Sage; JOPERD--The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, Vol. 69, 1998 “Does Sport Affect Character Development in Athletes?”
social costs of private enterprise in sport
Social Costs of Private Enterprise in Sport
  • State intervention has shifted a large share of the cost of professional sport to the taxpayers over the yrs.
    • 75% of stadiums/arenas have been publicly financed at taxpayer expense
    • Costs range from $125 – 400 million
  • When cities own these facilities pro team owners are relieved of the burden of property tax, insurance, and maintenance
    • Local taxpayers actually wind up subsidizing pro team owners
    • Makes it easier for owners to pick up and leave town
what else could you buy for 300 million
What Else Could You Buy for 300 Million…
  • 2 high schools, 2 middle, 4 elementary
  • Computer equip. for 37k students
  • Salaries for 4,000 teachers for one year
  • Build a new city hall
  • Paving the worst main road in Arlington
  • Lightrail w/ 8 train cars through town
  • 42 state park outdoor rec. projects
  • 75 wildlife protection & education proj.
  • 90 community park & trail projects
7 reasons why sports might get a poor reputation
7 Reasons Why Sports Might Get a Poor Reputation
  • 1) Supreme Importance of Victory
    • How Much Does Our Culture Value Winning?
    • Can Jobs Pivot on a Win/Loss Record?
  • 2) Poor Sportsmanship & Violence
    • (e.g. Bertuzzi Hit on Moore or Detroit Brawl)
    • How Does This Affect Culture and Society?
  • 3)“Rolling Out the Ball”
    • Does this Widen the Gap Between the Haves & Have Nots?
    • What Kinds of Messages are Sent When Treating Education as Less Important than Sport?
4) Focusing on Sport as Money
    • Nutcracker Reflex (Abusing Athletes) NHL?
    • How Does Money Corrupt Sport?
  • 5) Unethical Coaching
    • Name a Few Ways Coaches Might Cheat...
the young athletes bill of rights
The Young Athletes’ Bill of Rights

Offers Parents & Coaches Guidelines in Structuring a Sport Experience:

  • 1 Opportunity to participate regardless of ability
  • 2 Participate at a level commensurate w/ each child’s developmental level
  • 3 Qualified adult leadership
  • 4 Shared decision-making
  • 5 Right to play as a child and not as an adult
  • 6 Proper developmental preparation
  • 7 Equal opportunity to strive for success
  • 8 Treatment with dignity
  • 9 Have fun and not take sport to seriously