Biological Hazards in Medical Laboratories. What You Will Learn. This module gives an overview of how bacteria and viruses can cause injury, illness, disease, and even death to medical laboratory workers. . Bacteria Exposure.
This module gives an overview of how bacteria and viruses can cause injury, illness, disease, and even death to medical laboratory workers.
Many labs also culture other types of dangerous bacteria.
From April 5, 2002 MMWR (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report from CDC)
The use of post-exposure antibiotics have prevented outbreaks.
50% were fatal.
From MMWR 2/22/02
Diseases include Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease and similar diseases.
First US case of new variant CJD has been reported in Florida.
These diseases are not communicable via contact or aerosol between persons.
No reported lab cases yet, however incubation can be as long as 10 years.
Highest concentration in CNS and its coverings – thus potential exposure is during autopsy or post-mortem examinations.
Highly resistant to conventional inactivation procedures including irradiation, boiling, dry heat and chemicals.
Hantavirus: 4 persons known to have contracted hantavirus infection while handling infected rodents in the lab setting.
Herpes viruses are ubiquitous – primarily an opportunistic infection. Rarely, cytomegalovirus or Epstein-Barr may be transmitted in the lab.
No documentation that influenza has been contracted in the lab – as it also is ubiquitous in season.
Reference: MMWR June 29, 2001/50(RR11);1-42
The CDC reports as of December 2001, 51 of the 57 cases of occupationally acquired HIV infection involved sharps injuries of which nearly half involved needles used in phlebotomy or blood sampling from a vascular line, with vacuum- tube device needles accounting for the largest number of these injuries.
Other sharps injuries included broken glass from blood collection tubes and a needle for cleaning/dislodging debris in laboratory equipment.
Reference: Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, Feb 2003
CDC Biosafety in Medical and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL)
microbiological and biomedical
with human disease and with potential for
aerosol transmission (M. tuberculosis, C. burnetii).
threatening nature (Marbug and Ebola virus).