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Chapter 1. Introduction to Computers and Programming. 1.1 Why Program?. Computers can do many different jobs because they are programmable. 1.2 Computer Systems: Hardware and Software.

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Chapter 1. Introduction to Computers and Programming


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1 1 why program
1.1 Why Program?
  • Computers can do many different jobs because they are programmable.
1 2 computer systems hardware and software
1.2 Computer Systems: Hardware and Software
  • All computer systems consist of similar hardware devices and software components. This section provides an overview of standard computer hardware and software organization.
hardware
Hardware
  • The CPU
  • Main Memory
  • Secondary Storage
  • Input Devices
  • Output Devices
figure 1 1
Figure 1.1

Central

Processing

Unit

Input

Device

Output

Device

Main

Memory

Output

Device

figure 1 2
Figure 1.2

Instruction

(Input)

Arithmetic and Logic Unit

Result

(Output)

Control Unit

software
Software
  • Operating Systems
    • Single tasking
    • Multi-tasking
  • Application Software
1 3 programs and programming languages
1.3 Programs and Programming Languages
  • What is a program?
    • A set of instructions a computer follows in order to perform a task. A programming language is a special language used to write computer programs.
program 1 1
Program 1-1

// This program calculates the user’s pay.

#include <iostream.h>

void main(void)

{

float hours, rate, pay;

cout << “How many hours did you work? ”;

cin >> hours;

cout << “How much do you get paid per hour? ”;

cin >> rate;

pay = hours * rate;

cout << “You have earned $” << pay << endl;

}

program output
Program Output

How many hours did you work? 10

How much do you get paid per hour? 15

You have earned $150

programming languages
Programming Languages
  • Figure 1-4

High level

(Close to Human Language)

Low level

(Machine Language)

1 4 what is a program made of
1.4 What is a Program Made of?
  • There are certain elements that are common to all programming languages.
    • Key Words
    • Programmer-Defined Symbols
    • Operators
    • Punctuation
lines and statements
Lines and Statements

cout << “How many hours did you work?”;

variables
Variables
  • A storage location in the computer’s memory for holding a piece of information.
  • Symbolic names that represent locations in the computer’s random-access memory.
variable declarations
Variable Declarations
  • Two types of information: numbers and characters
  • Numbers may be integers or floating-point numbers
  • The statement below creates three variables in memory named hours, rate, and pay that each can store a floating point number

float hours, rate, pay;

1 5 input processing and output
1.5 Input, Processing, and Output
  • Input:

cin >> hours;

  • Processing:

pay = hours * rate;

  • Output

cout<<“You have earned $”<<pay;

1 6 the programming process
1.6 The Programming Process
  • The programming process consists of several steps, which include design, creation, testing and debugging activities.
designing and creating a program
Designing and Creating a Program

1. Clearly define what the program is to do

2. Visualize the program running on the computer.

3. Design a flowchart or hierarchy chart

4. Check the flowchart or hierarchy chart for logical errors.

slide21
5. Write a pseudocode version of the program.

6. Check the pseudocode for errors.

7. Write the actual program on paper.

8. Desk-check the program for errors.

9. Enter the code and compile it.

10. Correct any errors found during compilation. Repeat steps 9 and 10 as many times as necessary.

slide22
11. Run the program with test data for input.
  • Correct any errors found while running the program. Repeat steps 9 through 12 as many times as necessary.
  • Validate the results of the program.
1 7 procedural and object oriented programming
1.7 Procedural and Object-Oriented Programming
  • Procedural programming and object-oriented programming are two ways of thinking about software development and program design.