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Chapter 11

Chapter 11. Rome: Republic to Empire. Lesson 1: The Founding of Rome. What effect did geography have on the rise of the Roman civilization?. The Beginning of Rome. After Greece declined, parts of its culture was adapted by Rome The Settling of Italy

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Chapter 11

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  1. Chapter 11 Rome: Republic to Empire

  2. Lesson 1: The Founding of Rome What effect did geography have on the rise of the Roman civilization?

  3. The Beginning of Rome • After Greece declined, parts of its culture was adapted by Rome • The Settling of Italy • Centrally located in the Mediterranean region • Easy travel from Asia, Africa, and Europe • Sunny, mild climate • Fertile farmland • Rome’s Location • Alps and Apennienes • Volcanos • Tiber River

  4. Roman Origins • Multiple legends • The Aeneid by Virgil • Aeneas fled Troy • Married local Italian king’s daughter • Romulus and Remus • Left along Tiber River as babies • Female wolf cared for them • Shepherd found and raised them

  5. Becoming a Republic • Romans benefited from the Etruscans (Greece) • Grew tired of Etruscan rule • Romans overthrew king and established a republic • A form of government in which citizens elect their leaders • Able to acquire land through army • Well-trained, strict discipline • All male citizens • New battle strategies • Small groups - legion • Divided into even smaller groups

  6. Who Ruled Rome? • Effective rulers • Built military outposts to protect new land • Hills and rivers • Built roads • Troops and supplies • Treated conquered fairly • Would become loyal subjects • Roman Confederation • Full citizenship • Vote, serve in gov’t • Allies • Paid taxes, soldiers • Managed own affairs

  7. Lesson 2: Governing Rome How did conflict between classes change Rome’s government?

  8. Governing Rome • Not everyone was treated fairly • Divisions in society • Two classes • Patricians - Ruling class • Wealthy landowners • Old and most prominent families • Plebeians - Everyone else • Artisans, shopkeepers, and small farm owners • Some were very poor • Could not hold public office • Could not lead ceremonies • Both classes’ males: • Citizens • Vote • Pay taxes • Serve in army

  9. Government of the Republic • 3 branches • Laws • Daily affairs • Judges • Helped run gov’t and lead armies • Checks and balances • How did the gov’t work? • 2 patrician consuls (administrators and army leaders) • 1 year term only to reduce power • Could veto, or reject other’s decisions • “I forbid” • Praetors - interpreted laws and served as judges, served in army

  10. The Senate • Rome’s legislature • Group of people with the power to change laws • 300 men • Served for life • Advised consul • Debated foreign policy • Proposed laws • Approved roads and temples • Assembly of Centuries • Elected consuls and praetors • Controlled by patricians

  11. Conflict Between Classes • Plebeians grew frustrated • Many went on strike against army • Some left Rome • Patricians feared collapse • Shared power • Plebeians had own body of representatives • Council of the Plebs • Elected officials called tribunes • Voiced Plebeian concerns • Veto power • Pass laws

  12. Cincinnatus and Civic Duty • Dictator • During difficult times, consuls resigned to dictator • Complete control • Relinquish power after crisis • Today, it means an oppressive leader • Cincinnatus • A farmer appointed as dictator to defend Rome • Created army, defeated enemies, returned to farm • Admired for his civic duty - citizen’s responsibility to help their country • George Washington

  13. Rome’s System of Law • Written laws • Plebeians wanted written proof so not to favor Patricians • Twelve Tables • 1st written code • 12 bronze tablets • All citizens have the right to be treated equally • As Rome expanded, the laws expanded • Applied to non-citizens • Law of Nations

  14. Roman Justice • Innocent until proven guilty • The right to defend yourself against accusations • Careful consideration of evidence • Rule of Law • Law applies to everyone equally • Everyone treated equally • Removal of special privileges for the wealthy

  15. The Punic Wars • Carthage empire along the north African coast • Phoenicians • Main Roman rival • Rival turned into series of wars over 120 years • The Punic War Begins • 1st Punic War • Farm land in Sicily • Carthaginian navy vs. Roman army • Romans forced to build fleet • Created moveable bridge for combat • Battled for 20 years • Romans win

  16. Hannibal Attacks: The Second Punic War • Carthage tries to expand into Spain • Romans encouraged Spanish to rebel • Carthage sent the general Hannibal to attack Rome • Invaded Italy on elephants • Sailed, then marched • Crossing the Alps proved difficult • Killed half the soldiers and most of the elephants • Those left were still very strong • Romans win over several large battles • Carthage lost Spanish territory and had to pay tributes

  17. The Third Punic War • Carthage still a threat • Rome finally destroys empire in 3rd war • Waged wars simultaneously in other areas • Conquered Greece • Acquired province in Asia

  18. Lesson 3: The End of the Republic Why Does Conflict Develop?

  19. Problems in the Republic • Romans - Rich and Poor • Farmers began to fall into debt • Neglected farms while fighting wars • Farms destroyed in wars • Could not pay back loans • Wealthy Romans owned latifundia - large, farming estates • Jobs on latifundia went to prisoners of war • No wages, so the wealthy bought more land • Pushed out small farmers • The poor moved to the cities • Enslaved peoples still did most of the work • Free people found jobs at low wages • Gov’t offered cheap food and free entertainment to the poor • “Bread and circuses”

  20. Roman Reformers • 2 gov’t officials (brothers) worked for reforms • Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus • Rome’s problems because of the wealthy’s actions • Tried to get the Senate to seize land and distribute to the poor • Senators murder the brothers

  21. The Rise of Julius Caesar • Rome cycles through several leaders • Triumvirate - a political group of three leaders with equal power • Crassus (Syria), Pompey (Spain), and Julius Caesar (Gaul - France and Belgium) • Caesar’s Conquests • Fought the Celts • Invaded Britain • Popular with the poor • Crassus died in battle • Pompey became rival • Senate supported Pompey • Ordered Caesar to give up army and return to Rome • Civil war • Took over Italy

  22. Caesar Takes Power • Declared himself dictator for life • Appointed people to Senate who supported him • Gave citizenship to people in territories • Created jobs • Organized new settlements for landless laborers • Ordered landowners to hire free workers • Creation of new calendar • 12 months, 365 days, leap year • Julian calendar • Brought peace • But many hated him • Thought he wanted to be king • Ides of March • Senators plotted assassination • Brutus and Casisus (senators) • March 15th

  23. From Republic to Empire • Civil war after Caesar’s death • Octavian, Marc Antony, and Marcus Lepidus • Created Second Triumvirate • Octavian (Italy and the west), Antony (Greece and the east), Lepidus (North Africa) • Antony and Cleopatra • Lepidus retired • Octavian and Antony became rivals • Antony fell in love with Egyptian queen Cleopatra • Accused of wanting to take over Rome together • Octavian declared war • Octavian defeated Antony and Cleopatra • Committed suicide to avoid capture • Octavian became supreme ruler of Rome • The end of the Roman republic

  24. Octavian - a New Direction • Voiced his support for a republic • Privately, felt Rome needed a strong leader • Supported by strong and loyal army • But consented to Senate’s wishes • Declared Octavian as consul, tribune, and commander-in-chief • Octavian took the title of Caesar Augustus • “The Majestic One” • Rome’s first emperor

  25. Lesson 4: Rome Builds an Empire What are the characteristics of a leader?

  26. The Rule of Augustus • What reforms did Augustus make? • For 200 years, Romans experience Pax Romana (“Roman Peace”) • Protection • Created permanent professional army • Established Rome’s boundaries along natural physical features • Rhine River, Danube River, Atlantic Ocean, the Sahara, Euphrates River • Stationed troops along these areas

  27. Display of Power • Rebuilt public buildings, fountains, and palaces • “I found Rome a city of bricks and left it a city of marble.” • Government improvements • Named a proconsul, or governor, to oversee provinces • Augustus would visit provinces to inspect proconsuls • Changed tax system • Permanent gov’t officials with regular wages • Legal system • Code of laws for non-citizens in provinces • Eventually, they became citizens and law applied to everyone • Empire authority over individual rights • Distributed grain to the poor imported from Africa • Well-fed population led to less revolts

  28. The Roman Peace • After Augustus, family members became emperors • Nero, the last of Augustus’ family rulers, was cruel and committed suicide • After Nero, a general named Vespasian became emperor • Vespasian • Began the construction of the Colosseum • The tragedies of Mount Vesuvius and Roman fire

  29. Five Good Emperors • Did not abuse power • Economic growth • Agriculture and trade flourished • Introduced programs to help all people • Education for poor children • Built arches and monuments, bridges, roads, and harbors • A United Empire • Rome expanded to maximum size • Now Britain and Mesopotamia too • Many groups of people • Same Roman law, rule, and identity • Every free person a citizen • All citizens treated equally

  30. The Empire’s Economy • Agriculture the most important economic activity • Most people were farmers • Grapes and olives, grain • Industry • Potters, weavers, and jewelers • Artisans made glass, bronze, and brass • Trade flourished • Common system of money • Standard system of weights and measurements • Network of paved roads • Eliminated piracy • Many became wealthy but most city dwellers and farmers remained poor • Many still enslaved

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