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MINERALS. http://sciencespot.net/Media/mghtmincl.gif. Mineral Composition. •     Minerals are made of elements Elements are made up of atoms Atoms are the basic building blocks of all matter. They are invisible Atoms are organized on the Periodic Table of Elements. Atoms.

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minerals

MINERALS

http://sciencespot.net/Media/mghtmincl.gif

mineral composition
Mineral Composition

•     Minerals are made of elements

  • Elements are made up of atoms
  • Atoms are the basic building blocks of all matter. They are invisible
  • Atoms are organized on the Periodic Table of Elements
atoms
Atoms
  • They contain 3 parts…
  • Protons
    • Found in the nucleus
    • Positive charge
  • Neutrons
    • Found in the nucleus
    • Charge of 0
  • Electrons
    • Orbits the nucleus
    • Negative charge
element
Element
  • A substance in which all of the atoms are the same.
  • The major elements in Earth’s crust are
    • O - Oxygen
    • Si -Silicon
    • Al -Aluminum
    • Fe -Iron
  • Acompound is a substance in which there are 2 or more types of atoms.
periodic table where elements are arranged
Periodic TableWhere elements are arranged
  • Atomic number
    • Number of protons
  • Element symbol
  • Atomic mass
    • Mass of protons + Mass of neutrons
symbols to know
Symbols to know
  •       Aluminum – Al
  •       Calcium – Ca
  •       Carbon – C
  •       Chlorine – Cl
  •       Copper – Cu
  •       Helium – He
  •       Hydrogen – H
  •       Iron – Fe
  •       Lead – Pb
  •       Gold- Au
  •       Argon- Ar
  •       Magnesium – Mg
  •       Mercury - Hg
  •       Nitrogen – N
  •       Oxygen – O
  •       Potassium – K
  •       Silicon – Si
  •      Sodium – Na
  •       Sulfur – S
  •       Uranium – U
  • Silver- Ag
    • Phosphorus-P
periodic table information
Periodic Table Information
  • Each element is made of all the same kind of atom
  • Elements can combine together to form compounds which have a definite chemical formula
  • Which elements combine depend on the electron configuration.
  • Substances can combine to form mixtures.
connection to minerals
Connection to Minerals
  • Minerals are made up of a single element or a compound.
  • Since compounds are combinations of elements, it is important to know how and why elements combine.
  • The properties of minerals are due to the internal structure of the atoms. 
    • Otherwise known as their crystal arrangement.
  • 6 crystal structures
slide9
Is it possible for two different minerals to have the same chemical composition?
    • YES! Both diamond and graphite are made of carbon. The difference between these two minerals is the way in which the carbon atoms are arranged.
silicon oxygen tetrahedron sio 4
Silicon-OxygenTetrahedron(SiO4)

Isolated Tetrahedrons

(Olivine)

tetrahedron arrangement
Tetrahedron Arrangement

Single-Chain

Double-Chain

Sheet

Pyroxene

Amphibole

Mica

characteristics of a mineral
Characteristics of a Mineral
  • Naturally occurring
  • Inorganic (generally)
  • Solid substance
  • Definite chemical composition
  • Orderly crystalline structure

pyrite

http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/geology/images/pyrite_sm.jpg

what are minerals
What are minerals?
  • Minerals are aggregates of rocks.
  • This means many different minerals make up rocks.
  • Some major rock forming minerals
    • Quartz
    • Feldspar
    • Calcite
    • Mica
mineral formation
Mineral Formation
  • Cooling of magma- The slower the rate of cooling the larger the crystal.
  • Precipitation

- evaporation of water leaves the mineral behind- precipitate

3. Pressure and Temperature

- causes atoms to rearrange and form new minerals

4. Hydrothermal solutions

-mineral formation from hot mixtures.

mineral groups
Mineral Groups
  • 4000 minerals make up the Earth’s crust, but 98% of the crust is made up of only 8 elements.
  • Most rock forming minerals are silicates.
  • Silicates are minerals that contain silicon and oxygenand usually one or two more elements.
  • Other minerals are classified by their composition. Examples include carbonates, oxides, and halides.
silicates
Silicates

contain silicon and oxygen, the two most common elements in Earth’s crust

- make up 90% of all minerals

-common silicates: feldspar, quartz

http://volcano.oregonstate.edu/vwdocs/vwlessons/lessons/Slideshow/Show1/k-spar11.jpg

http://mineralminers.com/images/rock-crystal/quartz-crystals/quartz-crystal-clusters.jpg

non silicates
Non silicates
  • Non-silicates –

-do not contain a combination of silicon & oxygen

http://ms.yccd.edu/earth_science/PhysicalGeology/nonsilicates.jpg

carbonates
Carbonates
  • Composed of carbonate compound: CO3
  • Examples: calcite and dolomite

http://richardkruse.com/Misc_Photos/Minerals/Mineral_Calcite_RK2008.jpg

http://portableplant.net/oreimages/dolomite.jpg

oxide group
Oxide Group
  • Composed of oxygen and a metal
  • Examples: hematite and magnetite

http://www.mii.org/Minerals/minpics/Magnetite.jpg

http://www.redorbit.com/media/uploads/2004/10/28_30e4ecba792d2b734beb4d32901c1f58.jpg

sulfates and sulfides
Sulfates and Sulfides
  • Minerals that contain element sulfur
    • Sulfates:
      • Anhydrite
      • Gypsum
    • Sulfides
      • Galena
      • pyrite

gypsum

http://geology.com/minerals/photos/gypsum-159.jpg

pyrite

http://www.mineralminers.com/images/pyrite/mins/pytm174.jpg

halides
Halides
  • Contain a halogen
  • From Group 17
  • Example: halite (NaCl)- tastes like salt!
native elements
Native Elements
  • Minerals containing only one element or type of atom
    • Gold
    • Silver
    • Copper
    • Sulfur
    • carbon

http://www.mii.org/Minerals/Minpics1/Gold%203.jpg

http://www.mii.org/Minerals/Minpics1/Silver.jpg

http://www.rocksforkids.com/images/copper%20straw.jpg

two major mineral groups
Two Major Mineral Groups

Silicates

Non-silicates

Carbonates

Oxides

Sulfates

sulfides

Halides

Native Elements

Contain silicon and oxygen; olivine, mica, feldspar, quartz

Contain Sulfur; gypsum, galena, pyrite

Contain a halogen – From Group 17; halite (NaCl)

Contain only one type of atom or element; gold, silver, copper

Contain O and one or more other elements, Usually a metal; hematite

Contain C, O and one or more other metallic elements; calcite, dolomite

mineral physical and chemical properties
MineralPhysical and Chemical Properties

http://www.kgs.ku.edu/Extension/KGSrocks/jpegs/Displaycase2.jpg

properties of minerals mineral identification
Properties of MineralsMineral Identification
  • Physical and Chemical
  • Nearly 4000 different minerals exist, but only 50 are common. These minerals are identified using 6 basic characteristics.
color
Color

The same mineral may exhibit many different colors

Ex: Quartz rose/purple/smoky/clear

NOT a good mineral identifier

COLOR

hardness
Hardness
  • The measure of resistance to abrasion.
  • Hardness is measured on a scale called Mohs Hardness scale.
  • Talc is the softest mineral.
  • Quartz is the hardest common mineral.
  • Diamond is the hardest mineral

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a5/QuartzUSGOV.jpg

Quartz

Diamond

Talc

slide28
Four common objects that are used to test hardness:

your fingernail (hardness is approx. 2.5)

a copper penny (hardness is approx. 3.0)

a steel knife blade (hardness is approx. 5.5)

glass (hardness is approx. 6.0)

HARDNESS

streak
Streak
  • The color of the mineral in powder form.
  • This can be determined by using a streak plate.
  • Metallic minerals leave a dark streak.
  • The color of a powdered sample of a mineral – always the same!
luster
Luster
  • The appearance or quality of light reflected from a minerals surface.
  • The luster can be metallic or nonmetallic.
  • If a mineral is nonmetallic it can have vitreous, pearly, resinous or earthy luster.
density specific gravity
Density (Specific Gravity)
  • All minerals have density (mass / volume), but some are very dense
  • Specific Gravity is the density of the mineral compared with density of water

http://www.minerals.net/mineral/elements/gold/gold1.htm

cleavage
Cleavage

Cleavage of BiotiteMica: one-directional

  • Tendency of mineral to cleave, or break, along flat, even surfaces, where bonding is weak.
  • Mica has excellent cleavage.
    • It breaks into thin sheets

Rhombic Cleavage of Calcite: (3-directions)

Cubic Cleavage of Halite: 3-directions

fracture
Fracture
  • The mineral exhibits no cleavage.
  • Fracture is a type of break where uneven jagged surfaces are produced.
  • If a mineral breaks in smooth curved surfaces it has conchoidal fracture.
  • Examples = sulfur & pyrite fracture
unique properties of minerals
Unique properties of minerals
  • Effervescence
    • When dilute HCL acid is dropped on a mineral it begins to bubble. This identifies the presence of Calcium Carbonate.
  • Florescence
    • The mineral glows when you put it under UV light (blacklight)
  • Magnetism
    • The mineral exhibits magnetic properties.
  • Double Refraction
    • Mineral refracts light and gives “double refraction”
magnetic properties example magnetite
Magnetic PropertiesExample = Magnetite

Acid TestCalcite reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid

Halite tastes like salt.

Double Refractionexample = Calcite

Graphite has a greasy feel.

Sulfur – strong smell

slide39

Why are minerals

important?

  • Minerals make up rocks
  • Provide valuable resources

- Economic and manufacturing resources

  • Key evidence that the Earth and dynamic and changing
slide40
Ore
  • Ores are minerals that contain useful substances that can be mined for profit.
  • A common example is bauxite which is turned into aluminum.
    • Major ore minerals:
      • Pyrite
      • Magnetite
      • Hematite
      • Galena
      • Graphite
      • sulfur

Iron Ore

uses of minerals
Uses of minerals
  • Aluminum--packaging, transport, building
  • Beryllium--gemstones, fluorescent lights
  • Copper--electric cables, wires, switches
  • Feldspar--glass and ceramics
  • Iron--buildings, automobiles, magnets
  • Calcite--toothpaste, construction
  • Gold is used for jewelry
  • Talc is used for baby powder
  • Quartz is used for glass
  • Limestone can be processed to make concrete
  • Gems are brighter and more colorful than common minerals. This makes them rare and highly prized.

http://buygoldinternational.com/img/upload/gold-jewelry.jpg