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Assoc Prof Narimah Samat School of Humanities Universiti Sains Malaysia. Spatial social science cluster. Introduction Spatial Social Sciences Methods of Spatial Social Sciences Transdisciplinary Agenda Examples of Research Undertaken. Contents.

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Assoc prof narimah samat school of humanities universiti sains malaysia l.jpg

Assoc Prof NarimahSamat

School of Humanities

UniversitiSains Malaysia

Spatial social science cluster


Contents l.jpg

Introduction

Spatial Social Sciences

Methods of Spatial Social Sciences

Transdisciplinary Agenda

Examples of Research Undertaken

Contents


Introduction l.jpg

  • Studies in Social Sciences and Humanities deal with phenomena that are closely related to geographical factors.

  • Examples include:

    • The location of health facilities in relation to cancer cases in Penang State,

    • Changing shape of Sarawak’s boundary between 1841 to 2002

    • Accessibility of low-income households to food retailers in Penang State

    • Land use changes in Langkawi Island from 1970s to 2008.

    • Modeling archeological sites in Perak

    • Evaluating settlements pattern in Bujang Valley, Kedah

  • Traditionally, paper maps had been used to study geographical factors. The study by Dr John Snow, for example, mapped the distribution of cholera outbreak in Soho, England in 1854 , and found the association between the contamination of water wells in relation to the distribution of the cases. In that study, manually drawn map became an important tool for analysis.

  • The development of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) allows more advance analysis of geographical factors to be conducted in timely and more efficient manner.

Introduction


Spatial social sciences l.jpg

  • Spatial Social Science promotes the used of spatial techniques, tools and thinking in conducting research in Social Sciences and Humanities

  • Every aspect of human activity occurs on the earth’s surface and can be related to spatial concepts, such as location, accessibility, distance, proximity and neighborhood. These concepts can be utilized to map and analyze the spatial pattern and process.

  • Spatial representation or maps can also be used to communicate various population-based cancer, poverty, education, economic or crime statistics. These data originally are analyzed in tabular forms can now be viewed with spatial dimension and analyzed with spatial statistics to find association between the incidents and other related economic, environmental or social factors.

sPatial social sciences


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Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques, tools and thinking in conducting research in Social Sciences and Humanities

Spatial Pattern Analysis

Spatial Interaction

Cellular Automata and Agent-Based Modeling

Map making and visualization

Methods of spatial social sciences


1 geographic information systems l.jpg

  • GIS techniques, tools and thinking in conducting research in Social Sciences and Humanitiesis a powerful tool that can be used to acquire, manage, manipulate and analyze and display spatial and non-spatial data.

  • Data such as crime location, land and natural resources can be mapped and analyzed to evaluate spatial distribution and find association with other environmental phenomena.

  • Research and applications that involve understanding pattern and process on the earth’s surface can significantly be analyzed using GIS.

1. Geographic Information Systems


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  • Social scientists and humanities study various problems faced by society that require analysis of complex pattern and process related to social, economy and environmental phenomena

  • Spatial statistics such as spatial clustering are used to evaluate particularly high or low incidents of crime or disease

  • Neighborhood differences can be explained by other factors such as poverty, social exclusion, education and disorganization

2. Spatial pattern analysis


3 spatial interaction l.jpg

  • Spatial interaction models can be used to predict the flow of people, goods or services between two locations.

  • For example, the interaction between shoppers and hypermarket can be analyzed using network analysis in GIS. Such analysis allows Social Scientists and Humanities to understand consumer shopping behavior or suitable location of the hypermarket.

  • Accessibility can also be used to measure the equitable and efficient provision of opportunities and public services such as education and healthcare. For example, the accessibility of cancer patients to healthcare services can be evaluated using network analysis, spatial optimization method and spatial interaction model.

3. Spatial Interaction


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  • Cellular automata and agent-based model have been used to study complex social and environmental systems. The behavior of individual or group at local level is imitated to produce pattern at regional or global scale.

  • For example, cellular automata model and agent-based model have been widely used to model the spatial pattern of urban growth in relation to policy changes.

4. Cellular Automata and Agent-Based Modeling


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  • Map has been used by geographers for many years as a tool to explore the distribution and communicate the information to various users.

  • Maps and visualization techniques can assist in reporting and presenting the spatial distribution of cancer cases in relation to healthcare facilities, distribution of schools, and the

  • Thematic mapping of statistical data provides useful exploratory data analysis tool for knowledge construction.

5. Map making and visualization


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  • Research/studies/projects involve several academic disciplines to create new knowledge and theory and solve a common research goal using spatial information technology namely GIS, Global Positioning System (GPS) and remote sensing

  • These spatial technologies become useful tools to study various human activities and interaction

  • Spatial Social Science Cluster promotes the application of spatial information technologies and provides a tool to solve the ancient problem of combining general scientific knowledge with specific information and gives practical value to both (Longley et al., 2001).

Transdisciplinary agenda


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  • Narimah disciplines to create new knowledge and theory and solve a common research goal using spatial information technology namely GIS, Global Positioning System (GPS) and remote sensingSamat, Aziz Abdul Majid, NorizanMd Nor, RuslanRainis & SuriatiGhazali, Application of Geographic Information System in Modelling Urban Spatial Growth, USM Short-Term Research Grant, 2004-2006.

  • NarimahSamat, Amiza Mat Amin, MorshidiSirat & SuriatiGhazali,Urban poverty: A Geographical Analysis of the relationship between retail food access and socio-economic and its policy implication, MOSTI E-Science Fund, Oct 2007 – Sept 2009.

  • Narimah Samat, NikHaslindaNikHussin, SuriatiGhazali & TarmijiMasron, Geographical Analysis of Human Settlements in the Ancient City of Bujang Valley, Kedah, FRGS Research Grant, Oct 2006 – Sept 2009.

  • TarmijiMasron, NarimahSamat & NazaruddinZainun, The Application of Geographic Information System in Mapping Sarawak Boundary Changes 1841 – 2002, USM Short-Term Research Grant, 2006 – 2009.

  • SuriatiGhazali, ColoniusAtang, Narimah Samat, NorizanMd Nor, AzlindaAzman, IntanHashimahHashim & KhariahSalwaMokhtar, Double Jeopardy - Cancer and Poverty: A Survey towards Actions, Outside Grant (MAKNA), 2006-2009.

  • SuriatiGhazali, Narimah Samat & MorshidiSirat, Perception of Local People on Ecotourism : A Case Study in Sarawak, Malaysia. USM Short-term Grant . 2006-2008

  • SuriatiGhazali, Narimah Samat, AzilahMohamad Nor, Jabil Mapjabil & Prof. Jas LaileSuzanaJaafar Diffusion and Geographical Imagination of Male Transsexuals in Local Universities in Malaysia. FRGS Research Grant. 2006-2009.

Examples of research undertaken


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