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Week Eight Agenda. Announcements Link of the week Display inode information This week’s expected outcomes Next lab assignment Break-out problems Upcoming deadlines Lab assistance, questions and answers. Week Eight Agenda. Announcements:

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Week Eight Agenda


Link of the week

Display inode information

This week’s expected outcomes

Next lab assignment

Break-out problems

Upcoming deadlines

Lab assistance, questions and answers


Week Eight Agenda


Everyone should have a grade recorded for the midterm exam.

The final exam is worth 200 points. It covers more information and has more questions. The final exam is not compressive. Only about 5 percent of the previous material will be on this exam.

Sign up for your open source topic and email me the week you would like to do your presentation on (week 14 or 15).

link of the week
Link of the week

A Sys Admin's Universal Translator (ROSETTA STONE) OR   What do they call that in this world?



File System A/UX

Kernel FreeBSD

Start up scripts HP-UX

Create a file system Linux

Mount CDROM NCR Unix

Add software Open BSD

Mac OS X

link of the week1
Link of the week

Software Installation Quick Assist for Mac OS X

is a great toolbox that organizes and supports your software collection.

link of the week2
Link of the week

Open Source Projects

Lab Assignment 13-1 Public Domain/Open Software Evaluation is due April 8, 2012.


APA Style format

Cover sheet (course, instructor name, topic)

Three typed pages of information (min)

Reference page

link of the week3
Link of the week

Lab Assignment 13-1 Public Domain/Open Software Evaluation

Bulletin Board: Open Source Presentation Sign Up

No two presentations shall be the same.

Lab assignment grade components.

Paper: 0 – 75 points

Presentation 0 – 25 points

Presentation dates:

April 2, 2012 (week 14)

April 9, 2012 (week 15)

week seven question
Week Seven Question

How can the inode attributes be displayed?

There is a good deal of information about individual files on a UNIX system. One way to display this information is through a Perl script.

The Perl stat command is used to access thirteen pieces of information about a file through a script.

($dev, $ino, $mode, $nlink, $uid, $gid, $rdev, $size, $atime, $mtime, $ctime, $blksize, $blocks) = stat ( $fileattributes);

week seven question1
Week Seven Question

$dev – device number of the filesystem (0)

$ino – inode number (1)

$mode – file mode (permissions) (2)

$nlink – number hard links (3)

$uid – user ID of file’s owner (4)

$gid – group ID of file’s owner (5)

$rdev – device identifier (6)

$size – total size of file (7)

$atime – last access time in seconds since epoch (8)

$mtime – last modified time in seconds since epoch (9)

$ctime – inode change time in seconds since epoch (10)

$blksize – block size for file syatem (I/O) (11)

$blocks – actual number of blocks allocated (12)

week seven question2
Week Seven Question

Single file attribute (permissions):


Single file attribute (date) and print:

@date=stat ($fileattrabutes);

print “$date[4]\n”;

Perl module :

use File::stat

review week seven lab assignment
Review week seven lab assignment

Define: Data structure is where information is stored/collected in one place. The stored information may or may not be related.

Data structures are unique in their construction so as to deliver a specific usage. Commonly data structures are arrays, hash tables, stacks, and queues.

review week seven lab assignment1
Review week seven lab assignment

The inode data structure. Use ls –i command to display attributes.

file mode – file permissions (rwx)

count of hard links – how many hard links point to the inode

file type – executable, block special

owner id

group id

time of last file access - timestamp

time of last file modification - timestamp

file size - bytes

file addresses – addresses of the blocks of storage containing the files data on a HDD

review week seven lab assignment3
Review week seven lab assignment
  • The directory maps file names to inodes.
  • Each file has one inode.
  • The number of inodes is a kernel parameter value set manually or dynamically by the operating system.
  • Each file may have more than one directory entry.
  • Inodes contain a list of disk block addresses.
  • All inodes are data structures
review week seven lab assignment5
Review week seven lab assignment
  • When there are multiple hard links, more directory entries point to the same inode or file name.
  • An inode can only hold a fixed number of direct data block addresses (10 for Linux). Large files use indirect block addresses.
  • The inode keeps a count of the number of hard links that point to it.
  • Deleting a file deletes an entry from a directory.
  • If the number of hard links is 1, removing or deleting this file will also delete the inode.
review week seven lab assignment6
Review week seven lab assignment

Define: A physical link (hard) refers to the specific location of physical data.

Command: ln <original file name> <new file name>

-rwx------ 2 dandrear faculty 318 Jun 14 21:03 prog1

-rwx------ 2 dandrear faculty 318 Jun 14 21:03 prog2

review week seven lab assignment8
Review week seven lab assignment

Define: A symbolic link is a link to a directory or to a file in a different file system. A symbolic path indicates the abstract location of another file.

Command: ln –s <original file name> <new file name>

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Jun 28 2005 rc0.d -> rc.d/rc0.d

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Jun 28 2005 rc1.d -> rc.d/rc1.d

review week seven lab assignment9
Review week seven lab assignment

Define: tar

tar –cf newpack.tar /export/home/dandrear

tar –xvf origpack.tar

tar –tvf origpack.tar

Define: gzip

gzip filename.tar

gzip –d filename.tar.gz

gunzip filename.tar.gz

Define: bzip2/bunzip2ip

bzip2 filename.tar

bunzip2 filename.tar.bx2

review week seven lab assignment10
Review week seven lab assignment

Installing the software package


FreeBSD Port

Usually, the source files are packaged in a compressed archive file (.tar.gz). After downloading, the .tar.gz file, use the tar tool to uncompress the un-package the source files.

review week seven lab assignment11
Review week seven lab assignment

Definition: Installation of computer programs.

Installation process:

- Condensed package

- Unpack package

- Customized package

- Test the functionality of the system

- Configure files

review week seven lab assignment12
Review week seven lab assignment

Two choices for installing a project

1. Install binaries from a package

called “rpm” in Red Hat.

rpm checks for dependencies and conflicts with other installed packages on the system.

review week seven lab assignment13
Review week seven lab assignment

2. Install from source code

Allows for custom installations

Allows for code modifications

Optimum compilation for target platform

review week seven lab assignment14
Review week seven lab assignment

rpm is a tool

rpm –q sloccount (query to see if tool exists)

If the tool isn’t on your system, create a directory named sloccount

Download name sloccount-2.23- 1.i386.rpm

rpm –vUh sloccount-2.23-1.i386.rpm (install tool)

See the man page regarding the rpm tool

review week seven lab assignment15
Review week seven lab assignment


rpm {-q|--query} [select-options] [query-options]

rpm {-V|--verify} [select-options] [verify-options]

rpm --import PUBKEY ...

rpm {-K|--checksig} [--nosignature] [--nodigest] PACKAGE_FILE ...


rpm {-i|--install} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...

rpm {-U|--upgrade} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...

rpm {-F|--freshen} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE ...

rpm {-e|--erase} [--allmatches] [--nodeps] [--noscripts]

[--notriggers] [--repackage] [--test] PACKAGE_NAME ...

review week seven lab assignment16
Review week seven lab assignment

Software Installation of UNIX/Linux typically go something like this:

  • Download the software, which might be distributed in source code format, or as a binary.
  • Unpack the software from its distribution format (typically a tarball compressed with compress, gzip, or bzip2
  • Locate the documentation (perhaps an INSTALL or README file, or some files in a doc/ subdirectory) and read up on how to install the software.
  • If the software was distributed in source format, compile it. This may involve editing a makefile, or running a configure script, and other work.
  • Test and install the software.
review week seven lab assignment17
Review week seven lab assignment

Software releases

Interfaces – normally remain the constant.

Implementations – actual fixes

Behaviors – system changes from one implementation to another

review week seven lab assignment18
Review week seven lab assignment

Kernel is the central component of most operating systems. It’s responsibility is to manage the system’s resources and communicate between the hardware and software.

Kernel space is allocated for the kernel. Users aren’t able to access this area. Kernel space is generally larger than user space.

User space is a memory area where all user mode applications are performed. This memory area is swappable if necessary.

review week seven lab assignment19
Review week seven lab assignment

UNIX/Linux Turnable Parameters

Number of users on a system

Maximum database size

Number of global buffers

Number of semaphores (e.g. train track)

Set shared memory allocation

Display: Kernel Tunable Parameters are located under the /proc/sys directory.

review week seven lab assignment20
Review week seven lab assignment

Buffer cache

Amount of memory used to transfer a file system data structure such as inodes, direct blocks, indirect blocks, and cylinder groups.

Initially, you want to set up the buffer cache large enough to handle an inode data structure.

week eighth expected outcomes
Week eighth expected outcomes

Upon successful completion of this module (weeks 6, 7, and 8), the student will be able to:

  • Create make file scripts for software programs.
  • Use pattern rules in make files.
  • Create an effective PowerPoint presentation.
  • Create make files with multiple targets.
  • Install software packages on a server.
next lab assignment
Next Lab Assignment


fsck is used to check and optionally repair one or more Linux file systems.

If no filesystems are specified on the command line, and the -A option is not specified, fsck will default to checking filesystems in /etc/fstab serial.

fsck -A

Walk through the /etc/fstab file and tries to check all file systems in one run. This option is typically used by the /etc/rc system initialization file, instead of trying to use multiple commands for checking a single file system.

next lab assignment1
Next Lab Assignment

The exit code returned by fsck is the sum of the following conditions:

0 - No errors

1 - File system errors corrected

2 - System should be rebooted

4 - File system errors left uncorrected

8 - Operational error

16 - Usage or syntax error

32 - fsck canceled by user request

128 - Shared library error

next lab assignment2
Next Lab Assignment


/dev/mapper/vg_system-root / ext4 defaults 1 1

UUID=5a9e44d8-7554-4d9d-bf16-a1b6cf48ff9e /boot ext4 defaults 1 2

/dev/mapper/vg_system-home /home ext4 defaults 1 2

/dev/mapper/vg_system-tmp /tmp ext4 defaults 1 2

/dev/mapper/vg_system-usr /usr ext4 defaults 1 2

/dev/mapper/vg_system-var /var ext4 defaults 1 2

/dev/mapper/vg_system-swap swapswap defaults 1 2

/dev/shmtmpfs defaults 0 0

devpts /dev/ptsdevptsgid=5,mode=620 0 0

sysfs /sys sysfs defaults 0 0

proc /procproc defaults 0 0 /home nfs defaults 0 0

next lab assignment3
Next Lab Assignment


authconfig gpm ip6tables-config netdump_id_dsa rawdevices

autofs grub iptables-config rhn

clock harddisks irqbalance apm-scripts devlabel.d installinfo netdump prelink

network sendmail

console hwconf keyboard networking syslog

crond i18n kudzu network-scripts sysstat

devlabel init mouse ntpd xinetd

next lab assignment4
Next Lab Assignment

The Installation Exercise is an exercise that requires following directions. Perform each step in the prescribed sequence and using the installation syntax

from this slide presentation.

Create an ASCII file named 4th_log.txt

Create the following directory


Download the programming language “forth”

Copy compressed “tar” file to your 4th directory

cd /$HOME/itec400/homework/4th

cp ~dandrear/public_html/itec400/Misc/4th-3.3d2-unix.tar.gz .

The expected output is an executable file called “4th”.

next lab assignment5
Next Lab Assignment

Grading Criteria

The size of the file “readme.txt” is recorded in “4th_log” : 0 – 15 points

The prerequisites for the target ‘4th’ are recorded in “4th_log”: 0 – 15 points

The size of the executable named “4th”, in bytes, is recorded in “4th_log”: 0 – 20 points

next lab assignment6
Next Lab Assignment

Demonstrate Power Point Presentation

Fall 2012 Online Unix System Administration


PDF Creator

Password Safe

break out problems
Break-out problems

1. Process ID

2. User ID

3. fsck

4. /etc/fstab

5. Turnable parameters

6. Multiuser runlevel (Linux)

7. /boot/vmlinuz-*

8. Single user mode

9. /var/mail/dandrear

10. inode


12. crond

13. shared memory

14. semaphore

15. /etc/sysconfig

16. /proc directory

17. UTC

upcoming deadlines
Upcoming deadlines
  • Lab Assignment 6-1, Programming Assignment I due February 26, 2012.
  • Lab Assignment 8-1, Installation Exercise due March 4, 2012..
  • Lab Assignment 9-1, Startup/Shutdown due March 11, 2012..
  • Read Module 4 for week 8.
questions and answers
Questions and answers
  • Questions
  • Comments
  • Concerns
  • I am available after this Franklin Live session to discuss any problems and/or concerns regarding the lab assignments