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NGO Management Plan VESTA: education activities towards the strengthening of vulnerable groups in Vietnam Hanoi 26/5/2009 – 30/5/2008 Stamatina Poulou
INTRODUCTION The development of a comprehensive non profit policy The growth in socially responsible investment among banks, insurers, and e.t.c
THE 14 PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT (H. FAYOL) The 14 principles of management from Henri Fayol (1841-1925) are: • Division of Work • Authority • Discipline • Unity of command • Unity of direction • Subordination of individual interest
THE 14 PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT • Remuneration • Centralization • Scalar chain • Order • Equity • Stability of tenure of personnel • Initiative • Esprit de corps
THE FOUR ELEMENTS • To organize • To command • To coordinate • To control
DEVELOPING HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT The hierarchy of needs model The expectance theory expectations Theory x & Theory Y
THE HIERRARCHY OF NEEDS MODEL • Abraham Maslow (1908 -1970) Maslow assumes that it is much easier for a person who has experienced need gratification in early childhood to manage deprivation later in life and very difficult for those who have not had that experience.
THE HIERRARCHY OF NEEDS MODEL The physiological needs. These include the needs in order to survive like oxygen, water, food e.t.c.
THE HIERRARCHY OF NEEDS MODEL The safety and security needs. When the physiological needs are fulfilled the person become interested in finding safe circumstances, stability, protection.
THE HIERRARCHY OF NEEDS MODEL The love and belonging needs. When physiological needs and safety needs fulfilled the person begin to feel the need for friends, affectionate relationships in general, even a sense of community.
THE HIERRARCHY OF NEEDS MODEL The esteem needs. The lower one version is the need for the respect of others, the need for status, fame, glory, recognition, attention, reputation, appreciation, dignity, even dominance. The higher form involves the need for self-respect, including such feelings as confidence, competence, achievement, mastery, independence, and freedom.
THE EXPECTANCY THEORY • Victor Vroom Description of expectancy theory Vroom’s theory assumes that behavior is a result from conscious choices among alternatives. The purpose of the choices is to maximize pleasure and minimize pain.
EXPECTANCY THEORY This model deals with the direction aspect of motivation, that is, once behavior is energized, what behavioral alternatives are individuals likely to pursue.
EXPECTANCY THEORY The following are propositions of Expectancy Theory: When deciding among behavioral options, individuals select the option with the greatest motivation forces.
EXPECTANCY THEORY • The motivational force for a behavior, action, or task is a function of three distinct perceptions which are:
EXPECTANCY THEORY Expectancy- Probability: The expectancy is the belief that one's effort will result is attainment of desired performance goals.
EXPECTANCY THEORY Instrumentality- Probability : The instrumentality is the belief that if one does meet performance expectations, he or she will receive a greater reward.
EXPECTANCY THEORY It is important to note that when it is perceived that valued rewards follow all levels of performance, then instrumentality is low.
EXPECTANCY THEORY Valance: The valance refers the value the individual personally places on the rewards. This is a function of his or her needs, goals, values and Sources of Motivation
Theory X(Douglas mc Gregor) • The average person prefers to be directed; to avoid responsibility; is relatively en ambitious and wants security above all else. • theory x ('authoritarian management' style) • The average person dislikes work and will avoid it he/she can.
Theory X(Douglas mc Gregor) • Therefore most people must be forced with the threat of punishment to work towards organizational objectives.
Theory Y Theory y ('participative management' style) • Effort in work is as natural as work and play. • People will apply self-control and self-direction in the pursuit of organizational objectives, without external control or the threat of punishment. • Commitment to objectives is a function of rewards associated with their achievement.
Theory Y • People usually accept and often seek responsibility. • The capacity to use a high degree of imagination, ingenuity and creativity in solving organizational problems is widely, not narrowly, distributed in the population. • In industry the intellectual potential of the average person is only partly utilized.