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Today. Phrase structure rules, trees Constituents Recursion Conjunction Readings: 6.4 – 6.5. Phrase structure (review). 1) Every word belongs to a lexical category 2) Lexical categories forms heads of phrases

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today
Today
  • Phrase structure rules, trees
  • Constituents
  • Recursion
  • Conjunction

Readings: 6.4 – 6.5

phrase structure review
Phrase structure (review)

1) Every word belongs to a lexicalcategory

2) Lexical categories forms heads of phrases

3) How phrases are formed is governed by rules (= ‘phrase structure rules’)

phrase structure rules
Phrase structure rules
  • Rules that determine…
    • …what goes into a phrase (‘constituents’)
    • …how the constituents are ordered
  • Constituent: a word or group of words that function as a unit and can make up larger grammatical units
phrase structure rules1
Phrase structure rules
  • General schema:

X  Y Z

“X consists of Y followed by Z”

phrase structure rules2
Noun phrase (NP)

John

the boy

a little boy

a boy in a bubble

Phrase structure rule for NPs:

NP  (Det) (Adj) N (PP)

N

Det N

Det Adj N

Det N PP

Phrase structure rules

(where ‘()’ indicates optionality)

phrase structure trees
Phrase structure trees

NP NP NP NP

N Det N Det Adj N Det N PP

John the boy a little boya boy P NP

in Det N

a bubble

prepositional phrase pp
in

from a boy in a bubble

Phrase structure rule for PPs:

PP  P (NP)

P

P NP

Prepositional phrase (PP)
phrase structure trees1
Phrase structure trees

PP PP

P P NP

in from Det N PP

a boy P NP

in Det N

a bubble

recursion
Recursion
  • Some phrasal categories may appear to the left or right of the arrow

NP  (Det) N (PP)

PP  P (NP)

  • Recursion: the property of language that allows for the embedding of categories (which can yield infinitely long phrases)
slide10

the cat on the mat in the house on the street

NP

Det N PP

the cat P NP

on Det N PP

the mat P NP

in Det N PP

the house P NP

on Det N

the street

verb phrase vp
sang

ate the cake

ate the cake hungrily

sang a song in the shower

fell into the pond slowly

Phrase structure rule for VPs:

VP  V (NP) (PP) (Adv)

V

V NP

V NP Adv

V NP PP

V PP Adv

Verb phrase (VP)
slide12
VP VP VP

V V NP V NP PP Adv

sang ate Det N sang Det N P NP badly

the cake a song in Det N

the shower

structural ambiguity
Structural ambiguity

discuss [sex with Dr. Ruth] [discuss sex] with Dr. Ruth

structural ambiguity1
Structural ambiguity

discuss [sex with Dr. Ruth] [discuss sex] with Dr. Ruth

VP VP

V NP V NP PP

discuss N PP discuss sex P NP

sex P NP with Dr. Ruth

with Dr. Ruth

sentences
Sentences
  • Must contain an NP and a VP

The dog barked.

*The dog.

*Barked.

  • May contain an auxiliary verb

The dog will bark.

S  NP (Aux) VP

slide16
S

NP VP

Det N V NP

The dog ate Det N

the bone

S  NP VP

slide17
S

NP Aux VP

Det N will V NP

The dog eat Det N

the bone

S  NP Aux VP

conjunction
Conjunction
  • Words and phrases of the same category can be combined using conjunctions (and, but, or)
    • Cats and dogs make good pets.
    • Eat, drink, or be merry.
    • You can lead a horse to water but you can’t make him drink.

NP  NP conj NP

VP  VP conj VP 

S  S conj S

X  X conj X

conjoined phrases
Conjoined phrases

NP

NP  NP Conj NP

Conj

NP

NP

NP  Det N

N

Det

Det

N

the

cat

and

the

dog

conjoined sentences
Conjoined sentences

I bought a book, but I returned it.

S S  S conj S

S conj S S  NP VP

NP VP but NP VP

I V NP I V NP

bought a book returned it