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The Back and Material Handling Issues PowerPoint Presentation
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The Back and Material Handling Issues

The Back and Material Handling Issues

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The Back and Material Handling Issues

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  1. The Back and Material Handling Issues

  2. Cervical Thoracic Lumbar The Spinal Column

  3. The Basic Structure

  4. Short Term or acute effects: Sharp Surfaces Dropped Material Struck-by Moving Materials Mechanical Stress Slips and Falls “Simpler” Cause and effect relationship Epidemiology of Back Injuries

  5. Epidemiology Chronic or Long Term Effects • Back Ache or Pain • Disc Degeneration • Cause and effect not as simple, more difficult to analyze

  6. Return to Work • Out more than 6 months only 50% chance of returning • One year only 25% • Management and Practitioner Training One study showed that claims dropped from 200K to 20K per year by providing modified work and conservative treat

  7. Material Handling • Lifting/Lowering • Pushing/Pulling • Carrying • Weights and Forces • Frequency of Activities • Load Center of Gravity

  8. Material Handling

  9. Job Risk Factors • Weight of the Object • Location (position of load w.r.t. worker) • Frequency of Lifts • Stability of the Load • Hand Coupling • Workplace Geometry Twisting/Stooping • Environmental Factors

  10. Personal Risk Factors • Gender • Age • Anthropometry • Lift technique • Attitude • Strength • Training

  11. Examples of Manual Handling Controls • Avoid extreme range of motion when lifting • Redesign work station/work area to allow freedom of movement • Provide handles on material handling equipment • Provide lift-assist devices and tables • Unit Load Concept

  12. Job Design • Can reduce one-third of compensable LBP • Minimize reach and lift distances • Keep off floor • Work station design • Frequency • Relax time standard • Rotation • Work-Rest allowances

  13. Job Design • Minimize Weight • Mechanical aids • Carton capacity • Balance contents • Convert • Carry to push/pull • Push over pull • Use large wheels

  14. Training • Focus on awareness and avoidance • Get object as close to body as possible • Planning • Use of handling aids • Back Schools • Strength and fitness important

  15. NIOSH Lifting Equation1991 Version

  16. NIOSH Lifting Equation • Objective: Reduce occurrence of lifting-related LBP • 1981 and 1991 equations • 1981 limited to sagittal plane • 1991 includes asymmetry and coupling

  17. Disqualifiers for Use • One handed lifts • More than 8 hours • Seated or kneeling • Restricted work space • Unstable Objects • Carrying, pushing or pulling while lifting • Wheelbarrows or shovels • High speed motion • Unreasonable foot/floor coupling • Unfavorable environment

  18. Definition of Terms • RWL = Recommended weight limit • LC = Load constant • HM = Horizontal multiplier • VM = Vertical multiplier • DM = Distance multiplier • AM = Asymmetric multiplier • FM = Frequency multiplier • CM = Coupling multiplier

  19. 1991 Equation RWL = LC x HM x VM x DM x AM x FM x CM

  20. 1991 Guide • Compare RWL to Actual Load (L) • If Greater than or equal to 1 problem

  21. Lifting Index L RWL

  22. 1991 Multipliers • LC = 51 Pounds • HM = 10/H • VM = 1-.0075 x / V-30/ • DM = .82 + (1.8/D) • AM = 1 – (.0032 x A) • FM go to Table • CM go to Table

  23. NIOSH Worksheet

  24. Lifting Example

  25. NIOSH Workshop

  26. NIOSH Workshop Start of Lift End of Lift

  27. NIOSH 1991 Lifting Calculator

  28. WISHACalculator for Analyzing Lifting Operations

  29. www.lni.wa.gov/wisha/ergo/calculator/ergo_workshopIE.htm

  30. WISHA Workshop

  31. WISHA If the job is a hazard • Reduce weight of load • Increase weight of load so that it requires mechanical assist • Reduce the capacity of the container • Etc.

  32. References • Applications guide for the revised NIOSH lifting equation – On CD • Elements of Ergonomic Programs – On CD • Musculoskeletal Disorders and Workplace Factors – On CD • Work Practices Guide for Manual Lifting NIOSH 81-122

  33. What does the worker need to know from this presentation?