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QUALITY OF HALAL MEAT. Dr. Javaid Aziz Awan Country Director, Islamic Food and Nutrition Council of America, Faisalabad . About IFANCA? Islamic Food and Nutrition Council of America. Not for Profit Technical Islamic Organization Supervising production of Halal foods

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quality of halal meat

QUALITY OF HALAL MEAT

Dr. Javaid Aziz Awan

Country Director,

Islamic Food and Nutrition Council of America,

Faisalabad

about ifanca islamic food and nutrition council of america
About IFANCA?Islamic Food and Nutrition Council of America

Not for Profit Technical Islamic Organization

Supervising production of Halal foods

Certifying halal products

Finding solutions for new challenges

Publishing relevant information

Consulting Islamic scholars on issues facing Muslims in selecting food products.

ifanca strategy
IFANCA Strategy

IFANCA strives to satisfy:

ClientCompanies

Halal Recognition Authorities

Halal Consumers

IFANCA - most knowledgeable organization in the field

IFANCA - provides services second to none

IFANCA - builds relationships with the client companies, halal recognition authorities and halal consumers.

ifanca crescent m certification
IFANCACrescent M Certification

IFANCA certificates and certified products accepted world over

IFANCA - recognized by organizations like:

MUIS Singapore

JAKIM Malaysia

MWLSaudiArabia

MUI Indonesia

UnitedArabEmirates

ifanca crescent m certification5
IFANCACrescent M Certification

Global Affiliations:

IFANCA provides Halal certification in over 55 countries directly or through affiliates like:

IFCE, Europe

AFIC, Australia

NZIMM, New Zealand

some ifanca certified companies in pakistan
Some Ifanca Certified Companies in Pakistan
  • AB Mauri Pakistan (Pvt) Ltd., Lahore
  • English Biscuit Manufacturers (Pvt.) Ltd. Karachi
  • Coronet Foods, Hattar
  • Capital Food Industries, Hattar
some ifanca certified companies in pakistan7
Some Ifanca Certified Companies in Pakistan
  • Gaziani Industries (Pvt) Ltd. Karachi
  • Nabeel Industries (Pvt) Ltd., Lahore
  • Pakistan Gum Industries (Pvt)., Ltd. Karachi
  • Pepsi-Cola International (Private) Ltd., Hattar
  • Super Gum Industries Ltd. Karachi
some ifanca certified companies in pakistan8
Some Ifanca Certified Companies in Pakistan
  • National Foods, Karachi
  • Nestle Pakistan, Lahore
guidance for muslims
GUIDANCE FOR MUSLIMS
  • Holy Quran and the Sunnah provide guidance and inspirations for life on Earth
  • Food laws among guidelines
  • Ensure foods Muslims eat have positive bearing on their health
  • In fact the very first lawto be passed on to Mankind was a foodlaw:
the first divine law
THE FIRST DIVINE LAW

The Holy Quran

  • “And unto man: O Adam! Dwell thou and thy wife in the Garden and eat from whence ye will, but come not nigh this tree lest ye become wrong-doers” VII-19 - Al-Araf
the last divine law
THE LAST DIVINE LAW
  • The last Divine law incidentally a food law
  • Revealed during last pilgrimage of the Holy Prophet Muhammed (pbuh):
  • “They ask thee O Muhammed what is made lawful for them. Say: all good things are made lawful for you” V:4 Al-Maidah
  • Aim of Divine revelations:
    • Ensure man eats right type of food for his nourishment
slide14
MEAT
  • Meat indispensable for sound human health
  • Provides several essential nutrients:
    • Proteins
    • Amino acids
    • Mineral elements
    • Vitamins
slide15
MEAT
  • Meat subject to spoilage by:
    • Chemical reactions
    • Biochemical reactions
    • Biological agents, including bacteria
  • Meat responsible for food-borne diseases
  • Hence must be produced to:
    • Minimize chemical and biochemical changes
    • Prevent chances of bacterial contamination and growth to preserve quality
halal meat
HALAL MEAT
  • Slaughtering of animals and birds:
    • essential to prepare for food purposes
  • Pre-slaughtermanagement and bleeding methods:
    • regulated by legislations and religious practices
  • Earliest recordedlaws on handling, care and slaughter of animals:
    • Revelations in the Holy Quran and
    • Ahadith by the Holy Prophet (pbuh)
essentials of islamic method of slaughtering
ESSENTIALS OF ISLAMIC METHOD OF SLAUGHTERING
  • Islamic method of slaughtering - based on two important principles:
    • Tasmiya
    • Tazkiyah
  • Tasmiya - invoking name of Allah
    • means slaughter being done with His permission
  • This in accordance with several commands given in the Holy Quran
essentials of islamic method of slaughtering19
ESSENTIALS OF ISLAMIC METHOD OF SLAUGHTERING

“Forbidden to you (for food,) are: dead meat, blood, the flesh of swine, and that on which hath been invoked the name of other than God; that which hath been killed by strangling, or by a violent blow, or by a head long fall, or by being gored to death; that which hath been partly eaten by a wild animal, unless ye are able to slaughter it (in due form) ….…………. (V:4) Al-Maidah

essentials of islamic method of slaughtering20
ESSENTIALS OF ISLAMIC METHOD OF SLAUGHTERING
  • Tazkiyah means purification - cleaning meat of blood by slaughter
  • Consumption of blood prohibited in Holy Quran - VI:146
  • All lawful animals and birds contain blood
  • Blood must be drained as per these commands
essentials of islamic method of slaughtering21
ESSENTIALS OF ISLAMIC METHOD OF SLAUGHTERING
  • The Holy Prophet (pbuh) gave comprehensive guidelines on slaughtering of animals in following Hadith:
  • “Verily Allah, has prescribed proficiency in all things. Thus, if you kill, kill well; and if you slaughter, slaughter well. Let each one of you sharpen his blade and let him spare suffering to the animal he slaughters”.
essentials of islamic method of slaughtering slaughterer
ESSENTIALS OF ISLAMIC METHOD OF SLAUGHTERING - Slaughterer
  • Must be adult Muslim or
  • Must believe in Holy Scriptures
  • Must be in possession of his mental faculties
pre slaughter handling of animals 1 selection of animals
Islam strictly prohibits:

Pork

Carrion

Dead animals

Carnivorous animals

Birds of prey

Amphibians

Reptiles

PRE-SLAUGHTER HANDLING OF ANIMALS - 1. Selection of animals
1 selection of animals
1. Selection of animals
  • Islam permits:
    • All herbivorous, even-toed ruminants
  • Animal meant for slaughtering be:
    • Healthy
    • Free from any apparent or hidden impurities/diseases
    • Must be legally owned.
2 pre slaughter handling of animals
2. Pre-slaughter handling of animals
  • Modern methods require animal prior to slaughtering not be subjected to
    • Stress
    • Fatigue
    • Neurotic
    • Excitement
  • Roughhandling of animals in pre-slaughter period:
    • Adversely affects meat quality
    • Results in dark, firm and dry meat
  • Fatigued or starved animals
    • Organisms from gut may invade blood stream
2 pre slaughter handling of animals26
2. Pre-slaughter handling of animals
  • Proper relaxation before slaughtering:
    • Helps animal to bleed well
    • Builds up muscle glycogen to lower meat pH
    • Increases storage life of meat by reducing chances of microbial growth
    • Improves taste due to conditioning/ tenderness
    • Helps delay or reduce fermentation in stomach - may otherwise give meat characteristic smell known as ‘bone taint’.
2 pre slaughter handling of animals27
2. Pre-slaughter handling of animals
  • Undesirable - animal awaiting slaughter view slaughtering process – cause stress
  • Animals understress - lead to undue emotional instability, fatigue, anorexia, etc.
  • Discharge hormones from adrenal glands:
    • adrenaline from adrenal medulla
    • 17 hydroxy- and 11-deoxycorticosterones from adrenal cortex
  • Hormones deplete muscle glycogen and potassium
  • Deleterious effects on meatquality
  • Prevention - tranquilizers recommended to calm stocks in transit.
2 pre slaughter handling of animals in islam
2. Pre-slaughter handling of animals in Islam
  • Islam promotes calm and rested animals prior to slaughtering:
    • Not fatigued
    • Not excited
    • Not nervous
2 pre slaughter handling of animals29
2. Pre-slaughter handling of animals
  • Islam prohibits
  • Any act that causes neurosis or excitement or other abnormal behavioural changes in animal
    • Sharpening knife in front of slaying animals
    • Practice of collective slaughtering - other animals viewing their companion being killed
  • Research reveals
    • Practices inhumane
    • Cause stress
3 feeding the animals
3. Feeding the animals
  • Two schools of thoughts:
    • Animal to remain hungry - Fasting
    • Animal be well fed

Advantages of fasted animals claimed:

  • Bleed better
  • Carcass has brighter appearance
  • Carcass easier to dress
  • Reduced bulk of animal’s stomach
  • Reduced chances of bacterial contamination from gut
3 feeding the animals31
3. Feeding the animals
  • Disadvantages of fasted animals:
    • Loss in weight of carcass
    • Loss in weight of liver
    • Lowerglycogen reserves in muscles
    • Reduced gustative quality of meat
3 feeding the animals32
3. Feeding the animals

Well-fed animals:

  • Glycogen level in muscle reaches higher level
  • Ensures production of adequate lacticacid
  • Lowers pH of meat
  • Meat has good:
    • Appearance
    • Taste
    • Tenderness
    • Longer shelf-life
3 feeding the animals33
3. Feeding the animals
  • Meat of soothed and well-fed animals:
    • pH attains 5.5 or even lower level
  • Meat of fatigued or neurotic animals:
    • pH varies from 6.5 to 7.0
  • Often recommended to feed animals prior to slaughtering - meat of good keeping and eating quality
  • In some cases sugarsolution fed to quickly restore glycogen level in tissues
3 feeding the animals in islam
3. Feeding the animals in Islam
  • Holy Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) advised that animals destined for slaughtering be:
    • well fed
    • provided with drinking water
  • Preferable - animals have free access to feed and water prior to slaughtering
  • Result - good quality meat.
slaughtering procedure
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE
  • Conventionally, slaughteringprocess consists of two to three different stages
    • Depends on religious practices and legislations
  • Stunning
    • Jews not in favour of stunning
    • Muslims divided on the issue
    • Western countries require stunned
  • Bleedingmethod governed by religious and national legislations
slaughtering procedure 1 stunning
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE 1. Stunning
  • Stunning widely practiced in Western abattoirs
  • Main objective
    • Make animal unconscious
    • Make death gentle and painless
  • No standard method for all animals under all conditions
  • Stunning effective in having calm animal
slaughtering procedure 1 stunning37
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE 1. Stunning
  • Stunning - outcome of industrial revolution
  • Maximum animals be slaughtered in least time
  • Probably no relation with mercy on animals
  • Industrialrevolution:
    • Provided mankind with innumerable benefits
    • Inflicted damagingblows on some aspects of human nutrition
    • Example - refinement of wheat flour
  • Stunning might turn out harmful
slaughtering procedure bleeding
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE – Bleeding
  • Quick incision recommended using very sharp knife on front of the neck to severe:
    • Wind pipe
    • Oesophagus
    • Carotid arteries
    • Jugular veins

Positions for incision:

  • Hanging animal on its hind legs
  • Laying on the ground
slaughtering procedure bleeding39
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE Bleeding
  • To produce goodcarcass – bleed animal effectively
  • Heart and respiratorysystem must function continuously as long as possible after severance
  • This attained when heart and respiratory functions retained by maintaining medulla oblongata/spinal cord
  • Animals convulse
slaughtering procedure bleeding40
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE - Bleeding
  • During convulsions blood squeezed out of vessels
  • Hence more blooddrains out - a pre-requisite for meat of superior quality
  • Evidence suggests more blood lost from sheep in horizontal position than those hung vertically
slaughtering procedure bleeding41
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE Bleeding
  • Blood excellent medium for growth of microorganisms
  • Meat retaining more blood than critical level liable to bacterialspoilage
  • Blood retention in tissues can cause unpleasantappearance and discolouration in meat
  • Keeping and eatingqualities of meat depends, in part, on removal of maximum blood from carcass
slaughtering procedure laying animal for bleeding
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE Laying Animal for Bleeding

Lay animal (except camel) on its left flank, preferably facing Kibla

  • Laying enables animal to convulse - results from contraction of muscles due to lack of oxygen in brain cells when incision made
  • Ensures maximumblooddrainage owing to body pressure on heart - outranks other slaughtering techniques
  • Ensures rapid onset of unconsciousness and painless death
  • Prevents retraction of carotids
slaughtering procedure bleeding43
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE – Bleeding
  • While giving incisions with sharp knife:
    • Recite name of Allah:
    • Bismillah Allah-o-Akbar
    • Allah-o-Akbar
    • Subhan Allah
    • La illaha illila
  • Takbir - religious significance to believer
    • makes submission to Allah, that life taken out of animal with His permission
slaughtering procedure 3 bleeding techniques
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE 3. Bleeding techniques
  • Slaughtering actually done in the name of Allah and not in name of any person or deity in accordance with following commands:
  • “So eat of (meats) on which God’s name has been pronounced if ye have faith in His Signs” Vl:118, Vl:121 – Al Anam
slaughtering procedure bleeding techniques
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE Bleeding techniques
  • Islamicmethod:
  • Use sharp knife or any sharp object for bleeding except finger nail and bone
  • Incision made in neck
  • Throat cut transversely to severe carotid arteries, jugular veins, oesophagus and trachea without injuring spinal cord
  • Two essentials in slaughter of animals for meat:
    • animals be dispatched without unnecessary suffering
    • bleeding be as complete as possible
  • Both met in Islamic method of bleeding
slaughtering procedure bleeding techniques46
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE Bleeding techniques
  • When both carotid arteries severed unconsciousness in sheep induced between 3 to 6 seconds
  • Islamic method ensures maximum blood drainage from body before completion of death process
  • Connection between brain and body retained via spinal cord
  • Brain sends messages to heart and lungs
  • Heart pumps blood to parts of body - drained out from severed blood vessels in neck
slaughtering procedure 3 bleeding techniques47
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE 3. Bleeding techniques

Results of a comparativestudy

  • Maximumblood lost in Kosher method
    • Jewish method similar to Islamic as regards physical details
  • Minimum when chicken simply beheaded
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Islamic method ensures:
  • Minimum suffering to animal
  • Maximum bleeding
  • Lower pH of meat
  • Better meat quality
animal rights
ANIMAL RIGHTS
  • Islam recognized animalrights long before recognition of human rights in Western World
  • Numerous Ahadith reflect Islam advocates kindness and mercy towards animals:
    • Nourish animals well
    • Save animals from hunger and thirst
    • Show kindness to animals
    • Do not hit or mark animal on its face
    • Do not shoot arrows at cattle or bird tied or held up
    • Do not fight animals for sports or recreation
    • Do not unjustly kill even a sparrow or smaller bird (other than for food)