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Behavioral Change Models. Theoretical Models of Behavior Change. Prochaska Stages of Change Diffusion Process Ecological Systems Social Marketing. Prochaska Stages of Change . Intentional change unfolds through a series of five stages:. Precontemplation Contemplation Preparation

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Behavioral Change Models

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theoretical models of behavior change
Theoretical Models of Behavior Change
  • Prochaska Stages of Change
  • Diffusion Process
  • Ecological Systems
  • Social Marketing
prochaska stages of change
Prochaska Stages of Change

Intentional change unfolds through

a series of five stages:

  • Precontemplation
  • Contemplation
  • Preparation
  • Action
  • Maintenance
stages of change
Stages of Change


People in this stage have no intention to change their behavior in the forseeable future.

Although individuals at this stage are usually unaware of their problems, their friends and family usually are.

stages of change5
Stages of Change


In this stage, people are aware that a problem exists and are seriously thinking about addressing it, but have not yet made a commitment to take action.

They are aware of the pros of changing, but also are acutely aware of the cons.

stages of change6
Stages of Change


Individuals in this stage are intending to take action in the near future.

They have a plan and sometimes have already made small changes in behavior.

stages of change7
Stages of Change


In this stage, individuals modify their behavior, experiences or environment in order to overcome their problems.

Involves a significant commitment of time and energy.

stages of change8
Stages of Change


In this stage, people work to prevent relapse and consolidate the gains they made during the action phase.

stages of change9
Stages of Change

Stages of change in which particular processes of change are emphasized:

Precontemplation Contemplation Preparation Action Maintenance

Consciousness raising

Dramatic relief


Reinforcement management

Helping relationships


Stimulus control

Self re-evaluation


prochaska stages of change10
Prochaska Stages of Change

Implications for Programs:

  • People differ in their readiness to change
  • The effectiveness of a given strategy is likely to differ by stage of change
  • Relapse and recycling through stages is common for behaviors that are difficult to change
  • Simply helping move people from one stage to another may be an appropriate goal
innovation decision diffusion process
Innovation-Decision (Diffusion) Process


Awareness-Interest-Evaluation-Trial- Adoption/Action

innovation decision diffusion process12
Innovation-Decision (Diffusion) Process


Awareness-Interest-Evaluation-Trial- Adoption/Action

diffusion theory
Diffusion Theory

Key concepts include:

  • An innovation
  • Communications channels
  • Time
  • A social system
diffusion theory14
Diffusion Theory

When new ideas are invented, diffused, and are adopted or rejected,

leading to certain consequences,

social change occurs

adoption curve
Adoption Curve


of new


Early majority

Late majority

Early adopters

Late adopters (laggards)


Time of Adoption

ecological systems theory implications for practice
Ecological Systems Theory: Implications for Practice

Definition: Ecology

The term ecology comes from the biological sciences and refers to the interrelations between organisms and their environments.

ecological systems theory
Ecological Systems Theory

Ecological models of human behavior assume that behaviors are influenced by intra-personal, social, cultural and physical environmental factors, and that these factors are likely to interact with one another.

basic assumptions of an ecological systems model
Basic Assumptions of an Ecological Systems Model

You can’t understand a person or their behavior apart from the environment or ecology in which they live.

Human behavior is multiply influenced.

Systematic influences are not only multi-dimensional but also cumulative and interactive.

ecological systems model
Ecological Systems Model
  • Individuals also influence their environment
  • Because most behavior is multiply determined and cumulative, change is most likely to occur when multiple factors are targeted
  • Not all factors in a system are equally important (keystone factors and tipping points)
the social marketing process
The Social Marketing Process

Key concepts include:

  • A social idea or practice
  • One or more groups of target adopters
  • Social change management technology
the social marketing process21
The Social Marketing Process
  • Analyzing the social environment
  • Researching & selecting the target audience(s)
  • Designing the social marketing strategy
  • Planning the social marketing program mix
  • Implementing the social marketing effort
  • Evaluating the social marketing effort