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Identifying Health Insurance Predictors and the Main Reported Reasons for Being Uninsured Among U.S. Immigrants: The Role of Legal Status. Arturo Vargas Bustamante Assistant Professor of Health Services UCLA Fielding School of Public Health avb@ucla.edu. Co-Authors.

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slide1

Identifying Health Insurance Predictors and the Main Reported Reasons for Being Uninsured Among U.S. Immigrants: The Role of Legal Status

Arturo Vargas Bustamante

Assistant Professor of Health Services

UCLA Fielding School of Public Health

avb@ucla.edu

co authors
Co-Authors
  • Jie Chen, University of Maryland – College Park
  • Hai Fang, University of Colorado – Denver
  • John A. Rizzo, Stony Brook University
  • Alexander N. Ortega, UCLA Fielding SPH
outline
Outline

Background

Study Objectives

Results

Implications for ACA

background
Background
  • Previous research shows that legal status is a predictor of health insurance coverage among U.S. adult immigrants
  • It neither differentiates between short and long-stayed immigrant cohorts by length of stay nor picture the main reported reasons for being uninsured
background1
Background
  • Under the ACA, U.S.-born individuals and documented immigrants have similar entitlements
  • Short-stayed documented immigrants in the country are subject to the mandate and remain ineligible for Medicaid
  • By contrast, undocumented immigrants are excluded from all its provisions
background2
Background
  • Predictors are likely to differ across different immigrant cohorts, particularly between documented and undocumented immigrants
  • Short-term foreign-born residents are more likely to hold jobs that do not offer health insurance coverage and are ineligible for subsidized health insurance coverage through Medicaid
  • Return migration, however, is likely to change the characteristics of U.S. immigrants
study objectives
Study objectives
  • Study identifies differences on health insurance predictors and investigates the main reported reason for lacking health insurance coverage between short (≤10 years) and long (>10 years) term U.S. immigrant adults
  • To parse the possible consequences of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) among immigrants by length of stay and documentation status
methods
Methods
  • Health insurance coverage predictors and the main reasons for being uninsured are compared across cohorts and by documentation status
  • Foreign-born adults (18-64 years of age) from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey are the study population
  • Health insurance status and the main reasons to remain uninsured are the key dependent variables
methods1
Methods
  • Four mutually exclusive dichotomous measures of citizenship and immigration status using time of U.S. residence and documentation status
  • Use of the “residual estimation methodology” used by researchers of the Pew Hispanic Center and the Urban Institute to identify the undocumented
  • Analysis includes a number of explanatory variables that the literature has identified as main predictors of health insurance coverage
methods2
Methods
  • A logistic-regression two-part multivariate model is used to adjust for confounding factors
  • The first part of this model estimates the likelihood of health insurance coverage from the total sampled population
  • The second part of the model estimates a number of logistic regression models for subjects who remain uninsured
results
Results
  • Long-stayed immigrants are more likely to be:

insured, female, married, with more years of schooling, higher incomes, to have smaller families, participate in the workforce, report excellent and very good health, live in urban and suburban areas and respond the survey in English compared to the remaining categories.

  • Raw differences suggest documented immigrant positive selection across cohorts and overall improvement
results1
Results
  • Undocumented immigrants are more likely to be:

uninsured, overwhelmingly Latino, young, with less years of schooling, lower incomes, to be out of the workforce, report good health, live in either urban or rural areas, and to respond the survey in Spanish and Asian languages compared to documented immigrants.

  • Differences are not as marked between the short and long-stayed as in the case of documented immigrants.
results2
Results
  • The logistic-regression analyses show that legal status is a strong health insurance predictor, particularly among long-stayed undocumented immigrants.
  • Long-stayed documented (OR: 0.74, <0.09) and undocumented (OR: 1.67, <0.02) immigrants are less likely to be uninsured compared to short-stayed documented immigrants (reference category)
results3
Results
  • Immigration status is the main reported reason for lacking health insurance coverage (for short-stayed (OR: 6.05, <0.00) and (OR: 7.66, <0.00) for long-stayed) and are less likely to report affordability (for short-stayed (OR: 0.48, 0.04) as the main reason
  • Employment eligibility and other reasons are not statistically significant across categories
implications for hcr
Implications for HCR
  • Documentation status is an important predictor of having health insurance coverage among immigrants
  • From immigrant’s perspective, immigration status still remains as the main deterrent for lacking insurance coverage particularly among the undocumented
implications for hcr1
Implications for HCR
  • Immigrants self-select and those who settle and begin the assimilation process to the U.S. are different compared to short-stayed foreign residents
  • Our study provides evidence of positive selection and assimilation. This progression is much less pronounced in the case of the undocumented
  • It is currently uncertain how the implementation of the ACA could affect the undocumented foreign-born populations
slide17

Identifying Health Insurance Predictors and the Main Reported Reasons for Being Uninsured Among U.S. Immigrants: The Role of Legal Status

Arturo Vargas Bustamante

Assistant Professor of Health Services

UCLA Fielding School of Public Health

avb@ucla.edu