pH Tolerability of Goldfish. Cyle Evan White Undergraduate Student Biology Department Tennessee Technological University Cookeville, TN 38505. Introduction. What effects will acidic pH have on Goldfish?
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pH Tolerability of Goldfish Cyle Evan White Undergraduate Student Biology Department Tennessee Technological University Cookeville, TN 38505
Introduction • What effects will acidic pH have on Goldfish? • Ikuta found that behavior is significantly inhibited when fish are in acidic environment (Ikuta et al 2003). • This experiment found that a pH below 5.5-6.0 damage to an aquatic environment will remain a problem (Doka et al 2003). • Driscoll’s research found that acidification reduces abundance and diversity of aquatic species (Driscoll et al 2003). • These findings lend to my thoughts of the effect of low pH on fish.
Introduction (cont.) • “The fish in acidic pH suffered from the loss of sodium concentration in plasma, and also declined glycogen and protein contents in body muscle. The highly acidic pH medium caused epithelial rupturing in the buccal cavity of the fish (Mukhopadhyay et al 2003).” • (Hirata et al 2003) was based on the adaptation of a species of fish, Osorezan dace, in a lake of pH 3.5. This study dealt with the adaptations of the species to survive in this otherwise inhospitable environment.
Objective/ Hypothesis Statement • In this experiment, I sought to find a pH where Goldfish can no longer survive. • I hypothesized that goldfish cannot survive in a pH lower than seven. • Null- I expect there to be no difference in survival rates in different pH environments.
Methods And Materials • I ran two tests on each of my three pH values of 3, 5, and 7. • Each run will contain 3 fish, which will be observed over a 96 hour period. • pH will also be monitored over this period and shown as pH as well as hydrogen ion concentration. • At the end of the 96 hour period mortality rates will be determined.
Discussion • (Ikuta et al 2003) states that “Digging and upstream behavior were significantly inhibited in weakly acidic water”. • (Kitamura and Ikuta 2001), which agrees that “Avoidance of slightly acidic water in selection of spawning site or cessation of spawning behavior in weakly acidic environments may be the most potent cause of the reduction of salmonid populations”. • (Soldatov 2003), where low pH has a negative effect on the ability of fish hemoglobin to carry oxygen.
Discussion • in (Yada and Ito 1997), where they showed the differences between two species of tilapia. • “The resultant changes in the chemical composition of lakes and streams are important because of their direct effects on the benthic invertebrates and on fish populations (Dillon et al 1985).”
Conclusions • This study has shown that a pH below that of seven will result in 100 percent mortality rate over a 96-hour test run at pH five and three. • This rejects my null hypothesis that there will be no difference in survival rates at the different pH levels. • This should display the following: 1) that acidification of an aquatic environment will have negative effects on the species in that environment, and 2) that this should be a concern to us because this acidification is happening to many aquatic habitats presently as a of human activities. • Further more complex and detailed studies should be done to discover ways to slow down or reverse this process. • I hope this has shown that the continuing acidification of our aquatic environments is a serious problem that should be dealt with in a serious manner.