Cool Season vegetables What is exciting to grow. UCCE Master Gardener Program of Santa Clara County 2013. Master Gardeners of Santa Clara County.
Cool Season vegetablesWhat is exciting to grow UCCE Master Gardener Program of Santa Clara County 2013
Master Gardeners of Santa Clara County • Master Gardeners of Santa Clara County Mission is to extend research-based horticultural information to home gardeners. We are a UC program, through UCCE. • Telephone and walk-in Hotlines in San Jose and Palo Alto • Demonstration Gardens in Sunnyvale and Palo Alto • Free workshops and classes • Adult Education two-, three- or six-week courses • Monthly Tips & Events email • More than a dozen active projects throughout the county • Daily Facebook posts of “what’s in bloom,” tips, talks • Gardening information and guided search tools on our website: http://mastergardeners.org/
Overview • Quick review of soil and planting • What vegetables we grow, discussion of varities • Questions
What is needed • Sunlight and warmth • Properly prepared soil • Irrigation (and compost as mulch) • Plants from transplants or seeds • Control pests • Harvest
Know Your Sun • Where do you get the most sun during the year? In the winter? • Where do you get shade, year-round? • Put trellises and cages on the north side. • Maximize your sun to get the best out of cool season.
Soil amendments • Compost is not fertilizer BUT improves soil structure … what does that mean? • Do add nitrogen for vegetable beds. What are sources of organic nitrogen? • Also … over-fertilization Plants need more water and grow faster and bigger You need to prune a lot! And pests love that fresh flush of new succulent growth!
How & When to Water • Deep watering means “slow and long”—check with finger or moisture meter • Why is hand-watering hard to do? • Factors affecting irrigation • Soil water holding capacity • Water infiltration rate • Depth of rooting • Irrigation method and output
Watering Your Vegetables - Best Practices • When are you watering? • How many days a week? • For how long? • Swampy or dry spots? • Overhead or drip? • What is this handy tool?
Why start from seed? • Get an early start on the season • Start plants that are difficult to find • Good for hard-to-germinate seeds • Plants do not have transplant shock when direct seeded • Try comparing starting from seed and transplanting the same plant—you might find the ones started from seed do best
Why use transplants? • You do not need such an early start on the season • Plants are already ready to go • You can decide on your garden when you are buying the plants • You don’t have to fuss over seeds • Find varieties that suit our area (hopefully) • Shorter time to harvest
How to choose plants? • Look for healthy-looking plants • Check to see if pot bound or has underdeveloped roots • Try to get a plant that is not yet in bloom and if so remove the blooms • Better off with plants in smaller containers • Now you can plant as soon as possible
How to select healthy plants Pot bound or poor root systems plants Example of developed and underdeveloped root systems. Source: http://www.countryliving.com/outdoor/most-common-nursery-mistakes-0409
How to select healthy plants Examples of pot bound and not optimal plants
Plan for year-round harvest • SPRING To harvest in April and May: Start seeds in January/February to plant in March/early April • SUMMER: To harvest from June-September, start seeds from March/April to plant in May/June, for June-September harvest • FALL/WINTER: To harvest from Nov-Feb, start seeds from August-September, to plant in September/October. If you have room, direct seed in August. • PLANT (ALMOST) ANY TIME: many greens, such as lettuce, chard, kale, collards, spinach.
Lettuce • Head (Crisphead) - a tight head • Loose leaf - crisp leaves loosely arranged on the stalk • Batavian (Summer or French crisp) – between head and leaf, larger, bolt-resistant and well-flavored • Romaine or Cos - upright, elongated head • Butterhead (Boston or Bibb) - small, loose-heading types that have tender, soft leaves
Merveille des QuatreSaisons(Loose leaf) Lettuce Manoa (Butterhead) Parris Island (Romaine) Pablo (Batavian)
Lettuce Heirloom Italian Lettuce—Garden Fern Container Lettuce—Sweetie Baby Romaine
“Greens” Mesclun—Asian Salad Greens Arugula, wild—Rocket Salad, Roquette Baby Mesclun Lettuce—Cut and Come Again
“Greens” Frisee, Glory Escarole Mache--Gala
Spinach • Flat leaf – large flat leafs for all uses • Savoy – curly leaf • Half savoy – upright semi curly leaf • “Shield leaf” – on longer stem, triangular shaped leaf
Spinach Racoon (Flat leaf) Tyee (Semi Savoy) Bloomsdale (Savoy) Akarenso (“Shield Leaf”)
Kale • Curly leaf - very curly leaf edges • Dinosaur (Lacinato or Cavolonero or Tuscan) – long leaves with some texture • Siberian or Russian – long lacy leaves • Flat leafed – large frilled leaves • Ornamental – not the best to eat
Winterbor (Curly leaf) Kale Premier (Flat leaf) Lacinato (Dinosaur) Red Russian (Siberian)
Broccoli • Head – produces a large head • Sprouting - long, tender shoots • Broccoli Raab - multiple small heads • Chinese - smaller in size, darker green, stronger flavor, grows more quickly, no true heads
Suiho (Chinese) Broccoli Purple Sprouting (Sprouting) Waltham 29 (Head) Super Raabini (Broccoli Raab)
Kohlrabi Early White Vienna Early Purple Vienna
Cabbage • Savoy – crimped or curly leaves, mild flavor and tender texture • Green – Light to dark green, slightly pointed heads • Red – Smooth red leaves • Nappa (Napa or Chinese) – Long leaved, looser heads
Cabbage Perfection Dumbhead (Savoy) Blues (Nappa, Chinese Cabbage) Filderkraut (Green) Mammoth Red Rock (Red)
Carrots • Nantes – sweet, crisp, cylindrical carrots, with blunt tips • Imperator – classic long, tapered roots • Chantenay – short and stout, tapering • Mini (Radish style)– shallow root, good for containers
Sweet Nantes (Nantes) Carrots Atomic Red (Imperator) Babette (Mini) Red Cored Chantenay (Chantenay)
Beets • Red – Basic beet, sweet, earthy • Golden (Yellow) – as compared to Red more mellow, less earthy flavor • Striped (Chioggia) – naturally striped, mostly white and red • Baby – any type that is picked early as small
Beets Cylindra (Red, not round) Detroit Dark Red (Red) Golden (Golden) Chioggia (Striped)
Also … Radishes—Rainbow Radishes, Easter Egg II Brussels sprouts
Also … Pak Choi (Bok Choi), dwarf Cilantro Peas—Sugar Snap
Questions? UCCE Master Gardener Program of Santa Clara County 2013