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Improving auditory skills through training. Beverly A. Wright. Northwestern University Knowles Hearing Center. Types of learning. Types of learning. Declarative (Explicit, Conscious). Facts and Events. Fact. Event. Types of learning. Declarative (Explicit, Conscious).

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improving auditory skills through training

Improving auditory skills through training

Beverly A. Wright

Northwestern University

Knowles Hearing Center

slide3

Types of learning

Declarative

(Explicit, Conscious)

Facts and Events

Fact

Event

slide4

Types of learning

Declarative

(Explicit, Conscious)

Non-declarative

(Implicit, Non-Conscious)

Facts and Events

Fact

Event

slide5

Types of learning

Declarative

(Explicit, Conscious)

Non-declarative

(Implicit, Non-Conscious)

Skills

Facts and Events

Fact

Event

slide6

Types of learning

Declarative

(Explicit, Conscious)

Non-declarative

(Implicit, Non-Conscious)

Skills

Facts and Events

Fact

Event

Motor

slide7

Types of learning

Declarative

(Explicit, Conscious)

Non-declarative

(Implicit, Non-Conscious)

Skills

Facts and Events

Perceptual

Fact

Event

Motor

slide8

Types of learning

Declarative

(Explicit, Conscious)

Non-declarative

(Implicit, Non-Conscious)

Skills

Facts and Events

Perceptual

Fact

Event

Motor

perceptual learning1

Perceptual learning

Treatment option for hearing loss

perceptual learning2

Perceptual learning

Treatment option for hearing loss

Learning mechanisms

perceptual learning3

Perceptual learning

Treatment option for hearing loss

More effective training strategies

Learning mechanisms

perceptual learning4

Perceptual learning

Treatment option for hearing loss

More effective training strategies

Learning mechanisms

perceptual learning5

Perceptual learning

Treatment option for hearing loss

More effective training strategies

Learning mechanisms

Learning on basic tasks

perceptual learning6

Perceptual learning

Treatment option for hearing loss

More effective training strategies

Learning mechanisms

Learning on wide array of tasks

Learning on basic tasks

perceptual learning7

Perceptual learning

Treatment option for hearing loss

More effective training strategies

Learning mechanisms

Learning on wide array of tasks

Learning on basic tasks

slide18

Basic task: Frequency discrimination

Standard

Signal

Frequency difference

Frequency

Time

Which pair of tones

has the lower frequency (pitch)?

slide19

Basic task: Frequency discrimination

Standard

Signal

Frequency difference

Frequency

Time

Which pair of tones

has the lower frequency (pitch)?

slide20

Basic task: Frequency discrimination

Standard

Signal

Frequency difference

Frequency

Time

Which pair of tones

has the lower frequency (pitch)?

slide21

Basic task: Frequency discrimination

Standard

Signal

Frequency difference

Frequency

Time

Which pair of tones

has the lower frequency (pitch)?

slide22

Basic task: Frequency discrimination

Standard

Signal

Frequency difference

Frequency

Time

Which pair of tones

has the lower frequency (pitch)?

slide23

Basic task: Frequency discrimination

Standard

Signal

Frequency difference

Frequency

Time

Which pair of tones

has the lower frequency (pitch)?

slide26

Freq

Δf

Time

Just do it

Worse

Adjusted post-training threshold (Hz)

Better

None

Freq

Interval

Trained task

Wright, Sabin, Zhang, Marrone & Fitzgerald (2010)J.Neuroscience

slide27

Freq

Δf

Time

Just do it

Worse

Adjusted post-training threshold (Hz)

Better

None

Freq

Interval

Trained task

Wright, Sabin, Zhang, Marrone & Fitzgerald (2010)J.Neuroscience

slide28

Freq

Δf

Time

Just do it

Worse

Adjusted post-training threshold (Hz)

Better

None

Freq

Interval

Trained task

Wright, Sabin, Zhang, Marrone & Fitzgerald (2010)J.Neuroscience

slide29

Freq

Δf

Time

Just do it

Worse

Adjusted post-training threshold (Hz)

95% confidence interval of control post-test performance

Better

None

Freq

Interval

Trained task

Wright, Sabin, Zhang, Marrone & Fitzgerald (2010)J.Neuroscience

slide30

Freq

Δf

Time

Just do it

Worse

Adjusted post-training threshold (Hz)

95% confidence interval of control post-test performance

Significant improvement

(trained>none)

Better

None

Freq

Interval

Trained task

Wright, Sabin, Zhang, Marrone & Fitzgerald (2010)J.Neuroscience

slide31

Freq

Δf

Time

Just do it

Worse

Adjusted post-training threshold (Hz)

Better

None

Freq

Interval

Trained task

Wright, Sabin, Zhang, Marrone & Fitzgerald (2010)J.Neuroscience

slide32

Freq

Δf

Time

Just do it

Trained on

Interval Discrimination

Worse

Adjusted post-training threshold (Hz)

Δt

Freq

Time

Better

None

Freq

Interval

Trained task

Wright, Sabin, Zhang, Marrone & Fitzgerald (2010)J.Neuroscience

slide33

Freq

Δf

Time

Just do it

Trained on

Interval Discrimination

Worse

Adjusted post-training threshold (Hz)

Δt

Freq

Time

Tested on

Frequency Discrimination

Better

None

Freq

Interval

Trained task

Wright, Sabin, Zhang, Marrone & Fitzgerald (2010)J.Neuroscience

slide34

Freq

Δf

Time

Just do it

Trained on

Interval Discrimination

Worse

Adjusted post-training threshold (Hz)

Δt

Freq

Time

Tested on

Frequency Discrimination

Better

None

Freq

Interval

Trained task

Wright, Sabin, Zhang, Marrone & Fitzgerald (2010)J.Neuroscience

slide35

Just do it

Visual Learning

  • Karni & Sagi, 1991
  • Shiu & Pashler, 1992
  • Treisman et al., 1992
  • Ahissar & Hochstein, 1993
  • Levi & Polat, 1996
  • Crist et al., 1997
  • Fahle, 1997
  • Sigman & Gilbert, 2000
  • Meinhardt, 2002
  • Meinhardt & Grabbe, 2002
slide37

Just do it

Mechanism A

Frequency

Mechanism C

Duration

Mechanism B

Intensity

slide38

Just do it

Task performance

Mechanism A

Frequency

Mechanism C

Duration

Mechanism B

Intensity

slide39

Just do it

Task performance

Mechanism A

Frequency

Mechanism C

Duration

Mechanism B

Intensity

slide40

Just do it

Task performance

selection

Mechanism A

Frequency

Mechanism C

Duration

Mechanism B

Intensity

slide41

Just do it

Task performance

selection

sensitization

Mechanism A

Frequency

Mechanism C

Duration

Mechanism B

Intensity

slide43

Freq

Δf

Time

Practice, practice, practice

Worse

Adjusted post-training threshold (Hz)

15.8

12.5

10

Better

0

360

900

# training trials/day for 6 days

Wright, & Sabin (2007)Exp. Brain. Res.

slide44

Freq

Δf

Time

Practice, practice, practice

Worse

Adjusted post-training threshold (Hz)

15.8

12.5

10

Better

0

360

900

# training trials/day for 6 days

Wright, & Sabin (2007)Exp. Brain. Res.

slide45

Freq

Δf

Time

Practice, practice, practice

Worse

Adjusted post-training threshold (Hz)

15.8

12.5

10

Better

0

360

900

# training trials/day for 6 days

Wright, & Sabin (2007)Exp. Brain. Res.

slide46

Practice, practice, practice

  • chevron discrimination (Aberg & Herzog, 2010)
  • letter enumeration (Hauptmann and Karni, 2002; Hauptmann et al., 2005)
slide48

Practice, practice, practice

Task performance

selection

sensitization

Mechanism A

Frequency

Mechanism C

Duration

Mechanism B

Intensity

slide49

Practice, practice, practice

Task performance

selection

sensitization

Mechanism A

Frequency

Mechanism C

Duration

Mechanism B

Intensity

slide50

Practice, practice, practice

Training per day

More

Less

No Learning

Learning

Learning threshold

Effect

Training

slide52

Enough is enough

Temporal-Interval Discrimination

Worse

Δt

Freq

Time

360 trials per day

900 trials per day

Better

Wright, & Sabin (2007)Exp. Brain. Res.

slide53

Enough is enough

Temporal-Interval Discrimination

Worse

Δt

Freq

Time

360 trials per day

900 trials per day

Better

Wright, & Sabin (2007)Exp. Brain. Res.

slide54

Enough is enough

Temporal-Interval Discrimination

Worse

Δt

Freq

Time

Better

Wright, & Sabin (2007)Exp. Brain. Res.

slide55

Enough is enough

Temporal-Interval Discrimination

Worse

Δt

Freq

Time

360 trials per day

Better

Wright, & Sabin (2007)Exp. Brain. Res.

slide56

Enough is enough

Temporal-Interval Discrimination

Worse

Δt

Freq

Time

360 trials per day

900 trials per day

Better

Wright, & Sabin (2007)Exp. Brain. Res.

slide57

Enough is enough

  • ITD discrimination (Ortiz & Wright, 2010)
  • visual chevron discrimination (Aberg & Herzog, 2010)
  • mirror-reading task (Ofen-Noy et al., 2003)
  • motor-sequence task (Savion-Lemieux & Penhune, ’05)
  • visual-texture discrimination (Karni & Sagi, 1993)
  • speech-identification task (Roth et al., 2005)
slide59

Enough is enough

Training per day

More

Less

No Learning

Learning

Effect

Training

slide60

Enough is enough

More

Even More

Less

Same Learning

No Learning

Learning

Training per day

Effect

Training

slide61

Enough is enough

More

Even More

Less

Same Learning

No Learning

Learning

Training per day

Effect

Training

slide63

Freq

Δf

Time

Worse

Adjusted post-training threshold (Hz)

Better

Freq + Interval

Freq + Silence

Freq + Sound

All Freq

Interval

Wright, Sabin, Zhang, Marrone & Fitzgerald (2010)J.Neuroscience

slide64

Freq

Δf

Time

Worse

Adjusted post-training threshold (Hz)

Better

Freq + Interval

Control

Freq + Silence

Freq + Sound

All Freq

Interval

Wright, Sabin, Zhang, Marrone & Fitzgerald (2010)J.Neuroscience

slide65

Freq

Δf

Time

Worse

Adjusted post-training threshold (Hz)

Better

Freq + Interval

Control

Freq + Silence

Freq + Sound

All Freq

Interval

Wright, Sabin, Zhang, Marrone & Fitzgerald (2010)J.Neuroscience

slide66

Freq

Δf

Time

Worse

Adjusted post-training threshold (Hz)

Better

Freq + Interval

Control

Freq + Silence

Freq + Sound

All Freq

Interval

Wright, Sabin, Zhang, Marrone & Fitzgerald (2010)J.Neuroscience

slide67

Freq

Δf

Time

Worse

Adjusted post-training threshold (Hz)

Better

Freq + Interval

Control

Freq + Silence

Freq + Sound

All Freq

Interval

Wright, Sabin, Zhang, Marrone & Fitzgerald (2010)J.Neuroscience

slide68

Freq

Δf

Time

Worse

Adjusted post-training threshold (Hz)

Better

Freq + Interval

Control

Freq + Silence

Freq + Sound

All Freq

Interval

Wright, Sabin, Zhang, Marrone & Fitzgerald (2010)J.Neuroscience

slide69

Freq

Δf

Time

Worse

Adjusted post-training threshold (Hz)

Better

Freq + Interval

Control

Freq + Silence

Freq + Sound

All Freq

Interval

Wright, Sabin, Zhang, Marrone & Fitzgerald (2010)J.Neuroscience

slide70

Freq

Δf

Time

Worse

Adjusted post-training threshold (Hz)

Better

Freq + Interval

Control

Freq + Silence

Freq + Sound

All Freq

Interval

Wright, Sabin, Zhang, Marrone & Fitzgerald (2010)J.Neuroscience

slide71

Freq

Δf

Time

Worse

Adjusted post-training threshold (Hz)

Better

Freq + Interval

Control

Freq + Silence

Freq + Sound

All Freq

Interval

Wright, Sabin, Zhang, Marrone & Fitzgerald (2010)J.Neuroscience

slide72

Freq

Δf

Time

Worse

Adjusted post-training threshold (Hz)

Better

Freq + Interval

Control

Freq + Silence

Freq + Sound

All Freq

Interval

Wright, Sabin, Zhang, Marrone & Fitzgerald (2010)J.Neuroscience

slide73

Freq

Δf

Time

Worse

Adjusted post-training threshold (Hz)

Better

Freq + Interval

Control

Freq + Silence

Freq + Sound

All Freq

Interval

Wright, Sabin, Zhang, Marrone & Fitzgerald (2010)J.Neuroscience

slide74

Freq

Δf

Time

Worse

Adjusted post-training threshold (Hz)

Better

Freq + Interval

Control

Freq + Silence

Freq + Sound

All Freq

Interval

Wright, Sabin, Zhang, Marrone & Fitzgerald (2010)J.Neuroscience

slide75

Freq

Δf

Time

Worse

Adjusted post-training threshold (Hz)

Better

Freq + Interval

Control

Freq + Silence

Freq + Sound

All Freq

Interval

Wright, Sabin, Zhang, Marrone & Fitzgerald (2010)J.Neuroscience

slide76

Two wrongs that make a right

  • Visual orientation discrimination (Szpiro et al., in press)
  • Non-native phonetic contrast
  • Adapting to foreign-accented speech
slide77

Two wrongs that make a right

Task performance

selection

sensitization

Mechanism A

Frequency

Mechanism C

Duration

Mechanism B

Intensity

slide78

Two wrongs that make a right

Task performance

sensitization

Mechanism A

Frequency

Mechanism C

Duration

Mechanism B

Intensity

slide79

Two wrongs that make a right

Task performance

sensitization

Mechanism A

Frequency

Mechanism C

Duration

Mechanism B

Intensity

slide81

Types of learning

Declarative

(Explicit, Conscious)

Non-declarative

(Implicit, Non-Conscious)

Skills

Facts and Events

Perceptual

Fact

Event

Motor

perceptual learning8

Perceptual Learning

Treatment option for hearing loss

Perceptual learning

More effective training strategies

Learning mechanisms

slide83

Principles of perceptual learning

  • Just do it
  • Practice, practice, practice
  • Enough is enough
  • Two wrongs that make a right
slide86

Need for sufficient daily training within a restricted time period

Freq

Δf

Time

720 trials/day for 7 days with a 30-minute break

Worse

Adjusted post-training threshold (Hz)

15.8

12.5

10

Better

0

360

900

# training trials/day for 6 days

slide87

Adjusted post-training threshold (Hz)

0

15

240

Control

Short Freq

Minutes between Freq + Interval

……

slide88

Adjusted post-training threshold (Hz)

Short Freq

Standards differ in Freq

Standards differ in Interval

Same standard

Control

Freq + Interval

slide89

Worse

Adjusted post-training threshold (Hz)

15.8

12.5

10

Better

Interval then Freq

Freq then Interval

Control

Short Freq

Passive then Freq

slide90

Sound categorization task

mba

ba

pa

Non-native contrast

Native contrast

100

% mba

responses

0

100

% ba

responses

0

After training

mba ba

ba pa

Voice-onset time

(10 ms steps)

Voice-onset time

(10 ms steps)

slide91

worse

0.45

0.40

mba

mba

mba

mba

mba

0.35

mba

mba

Adjusted slope

0.30

0.25

better

0.20

Pre-1

Post-1

Pre-2

Post-2

Test

Sound Only

mba

Task Performance

Task + Extra Sound

mba

mba

slide92

worse

0.45

0.40

mba

mba

0.35

mba

mba

Adjusted slope

0.30

0.25

better

0.20

Pre-1

Post-1

Pre-2

Post-2

Test

Task + Extra Sound during Visual Demand

mba

mba

mba

mba

V

V

Task Performance

Task + Extra Sound

mba

mba

slide93

worse

0.45

0.40

mba

mba

0.35

Adjusted slope

0.30

0.25

better

0.20

Pre-1

Post-1

Pre-2

Post-2

Test

Task + Extra Sound during Visual Demand

mba

mba

mba

mba

V

V

Task + No Sound during Visual Demand

mba

mba

n = 9

V

V

Task + Extra Sound

mba

mba

slide94

Enhancing learning, greater amplified auditory responses can arise from prior ….

Internal response to stimulation

Task performance

time

Additional stimulus

presentations

time

Visual demand in quiet

time

V

slide95

15

min

Time Course of Interference

20

Discrimination threshold

(79% correct, in ms)

10

4

hrs

slide96

15

min

Time Course of Interference

20

Discrimination threshold

(79% correct, in ms)

10

4

hrs

20

Discrimination threshold

(79% correct, in ms)

10

slide97

15

min

Time Course of Interference

20

Discrimination threshold

(79% correct, in ms)

10

4

hrs

20

Discrimination threshold

(79% correct, in ms)

10