Department of Environment and Natural Resources National Capital Region. VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF THE LAS PINAS-PARANAQUE CRITICAL HABITAT AND ECOTOURISM AREA. CENRO MANUEL S. SABATER. Why Assess Vulnerability at LPCHEA.
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National Capital Region
VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF THE LAS PINAS-PARANAQUE CRITICAL HABITAT AND ECOTOURISM AREA
CENRO MANUEL S. SABATER
The vulnerability assessment of the LPCHEA aims to provide the basis
in the formulation of its sustainable development and management plan.
Identifying the hazards that take place or may happen in the area can guide
stakeholders in identifying priority and strategic interventions
to reduce environmental degradation or
enhance the capacity of the area cope with the environmental hazards.
Objective: Assess LPCHEA in terms of the following:
Its vulnerability to anthropogenic activities
Its vulnerability to water pollution
Vulnerability of its avian fauna to bird strikes
Its vulnerability to island instability
1 Establish the approach and identify the critical factors
2 Review and evaluate the required data inputs vis availability and reliability
3 Baseline construction
4 GIS – based processing of data and production of thematic maps
5. GIS modeling
Thus, the analysis proceeds on the relationships between anthropogenic activities and the avian habitat functions. The crosstabulated values refer to the levels of vulnerability: low, moderate, high and very high.
The analysis assumes that the factors have equal weights. With increasing frequency, the weights also increases, and thus vulnerability is worsened. The analysis also assumes that even if there is no identified significant activity, the entire area is anthropogenically active.
As such, the minimum level of vulnerability is low.
Critical Core Areas
LPCHEA Vulnerability Map
Critical Core Areas versus Anthropogenic
Avian habitat critical core areas used for breeding,
feeding and roosting with anthropogenic activities
result to high level of vulnerability.
Anthropogenic activities outside the critical core
areas result to lower vulnerability
LOW – no pronounced anthropogenic
activities and outside the avian habitat areas
MODERATE- with at least one anthropogenic
activity and at least one avian habitat function
HIGH- with at least one anthropogenic activity
and at least two avian habitat functions
VERY HIGH- with two or more anthropogenic
activities and two or more avian habitat functions
3. Intensive Information, Education/Training Campaign
To create awareness and develop positive values on the significance of LPCHEA for conservation and ecotourism
To manage solid waste in repository areas within LPCHEA, their sources and pathways
To open up income generating opportunities tapping the local population on ecotourism, waste management, and other compatible economic activities
To inculcate values among security personnel and make them understand the importance of disallowing access to the salt marsh, water ponds or the breeding area of herons in Freedom Island and stop creeping communities especially at Freedom island
Based on a six month monitoring of water quality in 4 sampling sites within LPCHEA (July-December 2008), the following were discovered:
BODis the amount of oxygen taken up by microorganisms that decompose organic waste matter in water. A high BOD indicates the presence of high concentration of biodegradable matter which suggests a high level of pollution
Copper is found in the earth's crust and thus, most of the world's surface water and ground water used for drinking purposes contains small amounts of copper. It is a mineral that occurs naturally in many foods (vegetables, legumes, nuts, grains, fruits, shellfish, avocado, beef (organs such as liver)). Copper toxicity is rare in the general population. Wilson's disease is a genetic disorder in which the body cannot rid itself of copper, resulting in deposition in organs and serious consequences such as liver failure and neurologic damage. Obstruction of bile flow, Indian childhood cirrhosis, and idiopathic copper toxicosis are other rare causes of potentially dangerous excess copper levels.
Chromiumindicates the presence of industries which use chrome plating, aluminum anodizing, dye, ink and paint manufacturing, tanning, engraving and photography in the drainage area of Las Pinas and Paranaque Rivers. Chromium has wide range of adverse effects in marine organisms like reduced fecundity, survival growth inhibition and abnormal movement patterns in benthic invertebrates. It is cancer-causing, mutation-causing and causing fetus/embryo malformation
Nickelindicates the presence of industries which use nickel plating such as jewelry and stainless steel production, in coloring ceramics, making some batteries, and as catalyst that increase the rate of chemical reactions. Nickel can be released in industrial wastewater. In water and wastewater, nickel can exist either dissolved in water or attached to material suspended in water. Nickel has been associated with algal growth reduction, in stress hormone production, enzyme production modification, alteration of immune, cardiac and respiratory functions.
1. Conduct study on the presence of heavy metals in avian fauna
2. Inventory the industries in drainage area of LPCHEA which generate heavy metals for inspection/monitoring and regulatory enforcement
3. Removal of reported sunken barges in the area which may be a source of heavy metals
4. Study implementation of beach ecolabeling as warning system against recreational and sports swimming, especially in areas with high BOD
LPCHEA lies along the East Asian – Australian Flyway
The NAIA is 2 -3 miles
away from LPCHEA
Take off and landing is
2-3 miles between airport
Results and Discussion
Field observations, interviews, research and review of records indicate that aircraft flight altitude and navigation paths are safe both for the wildbirds and the airplanes within LPCHEA and its vicinities. There is not even one incident of aircraft-bird strike on record at LPCHEA. Records exist elsewhere like in Palawan where the incident took place at the airport tarmac itself.
The presence of the protected habitat where the wildbirds can stay seems to be the best way to prevent potential birdstrikes by aircraft flying above LPCHEA and its vicinities
Noted are good experiences of co-existence of major airports and nearby waterbird sanctuaries in other countries.
Originally planned but disregarded.
Factors are geomorphology or the nature and origin of landforms of the LPCHEA landmass and mudflats, fault line, liquefaction, vegetation and soil. The geological study was not undertaken.
Soil erosion which can delineate boundaries on the different degrees of soil stability in LPCHEA was not undertaken due to lack of time but data on soil erosion factors have been gathered, i.e. rainfall, vegetation/land cover, slope, land use practices, soil texture.
Significance of sol erosion study: Beach erosion has been observed in the southern part of Long Island. Soil instability in susceptible areas have to be addressed with appropriate soil erosion control solutions.
However, in the review of data
which may be useful for an
assessment of the vulnerability
of LPCHEA to island instability,
this 1982 aerial photograph was
Third island, now gone
Las Pinas River
As coastal island barriers, Freedom Island and Long Island are significant parts of an ecosystem.
They are offshore deposits of sand or sediments that parallel the coastline separated from the mainland by a shallow lagoon.
The formation of barrier islands is complex and not understood completely. Theoretically, waves and currents continued to bring in sediments that build up, forming the barrier islands. In addition, rivers-washed sediments from the mainland that settled behind the islands helped build them up.
Below is a typical cross section of an island barrier ecosystem showing various habitats for avifauna.
What we need
What we need
2. Undertake a new Environmental Impact Study with the 850 hectare real estate development of the PRA that consolidates LPCHEA
What we need
WHY a new Environmental Impact Study?
a) The existing revised master development plan for its 850 consolidation project appears to be incompatible with the objectives of Proclamation 1412 which protects LPCHEA for conservation and ecotourism purposes
- It will impede seawater circulation around Freedom Island
- The proposed channels extending Paranaque River will cut the portion of Freedom
Island which are used by waterbirds as high tide roosting area and breeding areas.
- The beachfront development along Freedom Island will increase access to
the island which in fact will no longer make it a coastal island habitat. It will also give
mammalian predators easier access to sea birds, if avifauna areas survive.
- Anthropogenic disturbances will become uncontrollable without a water buffer zone
between the island and the proposed development area. While beachfront
development is possible along Long Island, it is not compatible with Proclamation 1410
along Freedom Island.
- The creation of a storm flood surge area within the present lagoon of LPCHEA can be
adverse to its avifauna habitat functions
- Construction may drive away the water birds with excessive noise generation while
exacerbating siltation at the mudlfats/lagoon.
What we need
WHY a new Environmental Impact Study?
b) Legal compliance to PD 1586
DAO 2003-30 limits validity of issued ECCs within 5 years! Thus the ECC issued
for the PRA project on September 16, 1996 has lapsed in year 2001.
the baseline characteristics of the project site has significantly changed to the
extent that the impact assessment as embodied in the Environmental Management
Plan is no longer appropriate.
The 850 hectares project area is an expansion from the original area of
Mismatch of the geographic coordinates of the approved project site issued the
ECC relative to those of LPCHEA and its vicinities.
c) Provide a planning tool that can help in the modification of current PRA
plans accordingly with a revised plan taking into consideration the need to
maintain LPCHEA as a coastal habitat with its diversity and populations of
water birds intact. The EIS will be able to undertake the studies proposed
in this VA.