Background Questions • What is this conflict about? • What are the roots of this conflict? • Romans, Diaspora, return to Israel • What is Zionism? • What caused tensions to build in the 19th & 20th centuries? • Who controlled Palestine prior to WWI and after WWI? Why the change? • How does this country’s control of the region play into the Jewish goal of creating a homeland in Palestine?
Background Questions • Who gets involved in 1947? What was their solution? • What is the Arab response? • What is significant about May 14, 1948? • Who is immediately recognizes Israel as an independent state? • What is the Arab response to the Jewish declaration?
4 Major Conflicts/Wars • 1948 – War for Independence • 1956 – Suez Crisis • 1967 – Six Day War • 1973 – Yom Kippur War/October War
1948 - War for Independence • Who attacked Israel on May 15th – name all five? • Israel appears outnumbered; but after several months of fighting, Israel is able to control 78% of what used to be Palestine • Gaza and West Bank absorb almost 1 million Palestinian refugees • Resentment towards Israel will result in the creation of many resistance fighters (terrorists)
1956 – Suez Crisis • What starts this crisis? • Egypt also blocks Israel’s southern port, Elat, on the Gulf of Aqaba • British & French launch air attack on Cairo • Israel launches ground attack taking Sinai Peninsula & Gaza Strip • UN intervenes – gets Brits & French out • Israel, urged by the US, withdrawals from Sinai • UN promises to send peacekeepers to Gaza border & Sinai Pen. to prevent attacks on Israel
1967 – Six Day War • Egypt orders UN out of Sinai & closes access to the Gulf of Aqaba…again! • Why did Israel attack Egypt & Syria? • Israel takes out all Egyptian & Syrian air power forcing them into a ground war. • Who joins in on the Arab side? • In less than one week Israel took control of: • Sinai Peninsula & Suez Canal (Egypt) • Golan Heights (Syria) • Gaza Strip (administered by Egypt) • West Bank (administered by Jordan) • Jerusalem (UN mandated international city)
Six Day War • Casualties • Arab = 15,000 • Israeli = 676 • Israel would not give up these conquered territories as easily this time. • What does UN Resolution 242 call for? • Israel ignores the resolution
1973 – Yom Kippur War • Arabs humiliated after 6 Day War; enlist the help of the Soviets (weapons & training) • How does this war start? • 1st week of war, • Arabs take back Golan, Suez, Sinai • Iraq & Jordan supplied troops • Saudi Arabia pressures US to abandon support for Israel – oil embargo starts • Looks as if the Israelis will be defeated • 2nd Week – tide changes • Israel regains Golan • Launches an attack on the west side of Suez • After 17 days of fighting Israel wins again!
PLO Recognition • In 1974, the UN gives the Palestinian Liberation Organization a non-voting seat in the General Assembly. • Yasser Arafat became the chairmen (head) of the PLO in 1969
Other major events in 20th Century • 1977 – Sadat, the Egyptian Pres, visits the Jewish Knesset (parliament) • He and P.M. Begin promise never to go to war again • 1978 – Camp David Accords • Pres. Carter hosted Begin & Sadat in an effort to sign a peace agreement – it is successful • Sadat is assassinated by a Muslim radical upon returning to Egypt • 1987 – Palestinian Intifada (uprising) • Palestinians demand self rule; Israel does not grant this and riots are answered with Israeli tanks
Other major events in 20th Century • 1991 – Saddam Hussein launches missiles at Israel during Persian Gulf War; Israel does not retaliate • 1992-93 - Oslo Accords • Secret negotiations b/w Palestinians & Israelis • Israel recognizes Palestinian self rule • 1993 – Clinton hosts Arafat & Rabin at White House • Symbolize achievements in Oslo • Rabin assassinated by Jewish extremist upon his return to Israel • 1994 – Jordan signs peace agreement with Israel
Arab Israeli Conflict in the 21st Century • 2000 – Camp David II – Israel & Palestinian leaders • Meeting hosted by Clinton is unsuccessful; can’t agree: • Territory • Jerusalem and the Temple Mount • Refugees and the 'right of return' • Israeli security concerns • 2000 - Bush’s Road Map To Peace • US encourages Palestinians to work with Israelis • Looses steam once 9/11 & War on Terror starts • Ariel Sharon becomes PM of Israel (party change)
Arab Israeli Conflict in the21st Century • Nov 04 - Arafat dies • Mahmoud Abbas, a moderate, takes over as head of the Palestinian Authority • 2005 - Sharon pulls troops out of Gaza • Proof that he is willing to make concessions in the peace process – move towards Two State Solution • Construction of the West Bank wall
January 06 - Sharon enters into a coma after a stroke • Ehud Olmert becomes acting PM – eventually becomes official PM (elected March 06) as Sharon never comes out of the coma • January 06 – Palestinian democratic elections held • Hamas (terrorist group) wins the majority of seats
March 2009 – Israeli Elections • Benjamin Netanyahu becomes PM • Politically hawkish – not a moderate • Brother killed in Uganda when the Israeli military went to rescue a hijacked Israeli flight • Has allowed for Israeli settlements to continuously be built in the West Bank – major source of current tensions – negotiations with the Palestinians derailed because of this issue
The Israeli settlement of Har Homa in East Jerusalem • once shared by Israeli & • Palestinians until 1998 • - US condemned further • development of this • settlement in 2010 2010 - Palestinian women huddle amid their belongings after Israeli forces demolished their homes in the West Bank village of Khirbet Tana, near Nablus
US Vetoes UN SC Resolution condemning Israeli Settlements • February 2011 – The resolution condemned all Israeli settlements established in occupied Palestinian territory since 1967 as illegal and demanded that “Israel, as the occupying power, immediately and completely cease all settlement activities in the occupied Palestinian territory, including East Jerusalem and that it fully respect its legal obligations in this regard.” • The US says that while it agreed that the settlements are illegitimate the resolution harmed chances for peace talks. • In explaining her veto, US Ambassador Susan E. Rice said the vote should not be misunderstood as support for settlement activity. • The other 14 members of the Security Council voted for the resolution • The resolution was co-sponsored by over 120 of the UN’s 192 countries
Palestinian’s Demand Legitimacy • Sept 2012 Abbas submits plans to UN for statehood vote; US vows to veto in Security Council • Nov 2012 - The United Nations General Assembly voted in favor (138-41 with Germany abstaining) of granting Palestine non member observer status, an upgrade from observer entity. • New status allows Palestine to participate in UN agencies • This was a clear sign of international support for the Palestinian statehood cause • US clearly in the minority on this issue continues to thwart Palestinian statehood progress
THE QUESTION REMAINS: Can there be a Two State Solution?