ATKM 791 Puttawan
Contents • Why Knowledge is difficult to manage? • Knowledge management process • Knowledge management strategy
KM: Difficulty in Excution Two main reasons for difficulties • Traditional disciplines of management do not lend themselves to KM • Business impact of KM applications remains vague • Source: Ichijo, K. and Nonaka, I. 2007. Knowledge Creation and Management: New Challenges for Managers. Oxford University press.
KM: Difficulty in Excution • Traditional disciplines of management do not lend themselves to KM • การบริหารจัดการระบบเดิมไม่เป็นแนวทางเดียวกันหรือไม่ได้ปรับตัวให้ระบบการจัดการความรู้ดำเนินไปอย่างได้ผล • การวางกลยุทธ์ การบริหารงานบุคค การลาด การเงิน กับการจัดการความรู้ ต้องปรับรูปแบบใหม่ • Source: Ichijo, K. and Nonaka, I. 2007. Knowledge Creation and Management: New Challenges for Managers. Oxford University press.
KM: Difficulty in Excution • Business impact of KM applications remains vague • การวัดผลที่ได้จากการใช้การจัดการความรู้ • งานวิจัยเพื่อประเมินผลยังมีไม่มาก • Source: Ichijo, K. and Nonaka, I. 2007. Knowledge Creation and Management: New Challenges for Managers. Oxford University press.
Why Knowledge is difficult to manage? • Knowledge has taken procedure over traditional organization resources- capital, land, labor. • In value creation, companies' success is now on its ability to tap into their biggest asset – the knowledge of employees. Knowledge can not be managed separately from knowledge workers
Why Knowledge is difficult to manage? As an Intangible asset, knowledge: • Involves human beings • Has different dimensions • Feed on itself • Is public and private • Is hard to measure and quantify
Why Knowledge is difficult to manage? Knowledge involves human beings The movement of knowledge • across individual and organizational boundaries, into and from KMS • Into organizational routines and practices Depend on The knowledge sharing behaviors of employees
Why Knowledge is difficult to manage? Knowledge involves human beings The movement of knowledge Depend on The knowledge sharing behaviors of employees The quality of the work environment, motivational factors, trust and relationships assume fundamental relevance
Why Knowledge is difficult to manage? Knowledge has different dimensions 2 Main knowledge dimensions • Tacit • Explicit
Why Knowledge is difficult to manage? 2 Main dimensions of Knowledge • Tacit knowledge – Implicit • Difficult to document in detail but can be exchanged through interactions with employees and customers • Highly dependent on the context of knowledge, experience, wisdom of person who carries the knowledge • Cannot be separated from its source, in order to request it, one need to identify the source of knowledge. Efficacy capture, sharing methods.
Why Knowledge is difficult to manage? 2 Main dimensions of Knowledge • Explicit knowledge • Formal, often in written form, easy to express • Can be made available to members – book, document, project report, case study, policy manual Document analysis
Why Knowledge is difficult to manage? Knowledge feeds on itself • Knowledge is a source of generation and renewal of itself • Value of knowledge does not diminished with use, • knowledge can be shared and combined to generate new knowledge – has potential to yield increasing in return Efficient storage
Why Knowledge is difficult to manage? Knowledge is a both public and a private good • Public good • non excluding, an inability to exclude an individual from enjoying that good • non rivalry – one person’s having it does not prevent another from having it.
Why Knowledge is difficult to manage? Knowledge is a both public and a private good • Private good • Difficult to transfer without the context in which hat knowledge is developed and used Willingness to share
Why Knowledge is difficult to manage? Knowledge is hard to measure and quantity • Traditional measurement systems are unable to capture, measure, and report on the benefit of KM. • Practical and mostly indirect measurement
Knowledge has a life of its own? Knowledge depreciates when content becomes dated, or when new knowledge renders it obsolete. Dynamic
Value of Knowledge The value of knowledge depends on its quality and on potential users’ ability to interpret it and integrate it with their experience. So as to To create the capacity for effective action and to influence decisions.
Knowledge management process KM is a systemic and organizationally specific process of acquiring, organizing, communicating knowledge • Internal – in the organization • External – to customers and steak holders Rely on four overlapping process
Knowledge management process • Knowledge creation • Storage • Distribution • Application
Knowledge management process • Knowledge creation • Practice, process and routines used to make knowledge creation effective and to move knowledge into a state where it is kept and available to use in the future. need tools to support knowledge workers in creative process of generating ideas, in brain storming or innovation development. such as mind mapping
Knowledge management process • Storage • Processes and facilitates used to keep knowledge and information until it is needed. Tool KMS • requires steps to structure it and make it easy to access and reuse. • such as associating documents with additional information (metadata) for retrieval purpose.
Knowledge management process • Distribution Organizational mechanism and processes to diffuse knowledge and make it accessible to knowledge workers who needs it, when needs it. Users must know what they are looking for and specify their needs precisely
Knowledge management process • Application • Using existing knowledge and applying it in their respective job activities as well as making knowledge easy to access, frequent updating. • The stated objective of KMS implementation is to enable knowledge reuse rather than reinventing existing processes.
Knowledge management process • Discovery • Combination • Socialization • Sharing • Socialization • Exchange • Application • Direction • Routines • Capture • Externalization • Internalization
Knowledge management strategy One widely adopted classification of knowledge management strategies – two broad classes Personalization Codification
Knowledge management strategy 1. Personalization – Focus on tacit dimension of knowledge and assume that knowledge is shared mainly through direct inter-personal combination. person – to – person approach
Knowledge management strategy 2. Codification – Knowledge can be effectively extracted and codified, document- to - person approach Knowledge are stored and indexed in data bases that enable easy retrieval.
Knowledge management strategy Company can pursue different knowledge management strategies to support the KM process Depending on what type of knowledge they consider most valuable
Knowledge management strategy The genera tendency today suggests that companies need to balance 2 strategies.
SECI Model Tacit Tacit Externalization Socialization Tacit Explicit Internalization Combination Tacit Explicit Explicit Explicit
Discussion เปรียบเทียบ KM Strategies กับ SECI Model ของ Nonaka นำเสนองาน
Goal of KM implementation The majority of firms become involved in KM initiatives. Mertimset. al., 2005 What is goal of your KM and KMS
Mistake of KM implementation Unrealistic expectations of IT solutions that are often hyped by vendors as easy solutions for managing knowledge Majority of firms’ mistake to approach KM.
Knowledge management common mistake Cause Thinking that: relying on specific technology, KM can capture “best practice”, success story and lesson learned that can be applied by others Mistake • Emphasis is placed on technology rather than • How it should operate • What problem it is supposed to address • How it be integrated with the overarching technology strategy
Knowledge management common mistake Cause Implementing KM program because the competitors did and achieved concrete benefits Mistake KM implementation should drive from company problem or opportunity. KM should start at department or existing process is most likely to provide a context for a KM initiative.
Knowledge management common mistake Cause Failing to address the important question from a knowledge worker’s perspective of “what’s in it for me? ” Mistake Knowledge workers are unlikely to exchange their knowledge without a fair return for their time and energy
Knowledge management common mistake Cause Considering KM as a deterministic, static, and one - time - event Mistake KM is a dynamic, evolutionary process in which each state requires specific mechanisms to be effective manage.
Why KM is more important • Macro trend • Increasing in the information and communication technologies and digital network • Globalization of the economy • Importance of intangible asset view of the firms • The challenge of lost knowledge • The rise of service economy • Micro trend- focus on organization
Why KM is more important • Macro trend • Increasing in the information and communication technologies and digital network Data and information are much more accessible to all sectors than before Agents in the economy are better linked to information and knowledge
Why KM is more important Data and information are much more accessible to all sectors than before The reduction in the cost of computer and component Increase in the speed and bandwidth of communication networks and falling communication equipment cost The liberalization of telecommunication sector – decrease in the cost of network access
Why KM is more important • Macro trend • Globalization of the economy The worldwide scale of production, distribution, and ownership cause • The need for systems to enable interaction between people having knowledge and those seeking knowledge as well as system to make organizational knowledge globally accessible
Developing the bridge geographical locations, suppliers, and business partners is one of the key roles of KMS Change in business environment is not a cause of interest in KNOWLEDGE and KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT but the burst of intellectual activities KNOWLEDGE is a primary driver of firms’ value and sustain competitive advantage
Why KM is more important • Macro trend • Importance of intangible asset view of the firms Traditional economy – Industries based on financial capital (money, land, machine, equipment) Since 1990s, New economy – Industries based on knowledge and intangible assets and focus on long-term value creation Knowledge-based economy – because it is based on production, distribution, and use of knowledge and information in the design, produce, distribute products and services.
Knowledge-based resources are considered as the most critical to gain competitive advantage, to do things differently in order to prosper
Why KM is more important • Macro trend • The challenge of lost knowledge Highly skilled labors spend long time to build up huge amount of knowledge about how things work and get done Organizations face with retirement, downsizing, or other turnover are threatened by the loss of value knowledge
Knowledge leave organization without attempt being made to identify, capture and share it with others Remaining employees often search for answers to questions that have been answered, recreate analyses that have been conducted many times over Aerospace company Discuss