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The First World War. 1914-1920. Lecture 8.1 “A World Crisis”. DRQ 8.1 From what you learned last year, what were the four MAIN causes of WWI?. A. Causes of World War I. Event that sparked the war Archduke Franz Ferdinand killed MAIN causes M ilitarism Military preparedness – build up

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Lecture 8 1 a world crisis

Lecture 8.1 “A World Crisis”

DRQ 8.1

From what you learned last year, what were the four MAINcauses

of WWI?


A causes of world war i
A. Causes of World War I

  • Event that sparked the war

    • Archduke Franz Ferdinand killed

  • MAIN causes

    • Militarism

      • Military preparedness – build up

    • Alliances

      • Triple Alliance – Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy

      • Triple Entente – Britain, France, Russia

      • “balance of power”

    • Imperialism

      • Competition for empire

      • Kaiser Wilhelm II - Germany

    • Nationalism

      • Competition for power


B war breaks out
B. War Breaks Out

  • Alliances lead to war declarations

  • The Germans take Belgium

    • Germany’s Schlieffen Plan

    • Britain declares war

    • Central Powers

      • Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire

    • Allied Powers

      • Britain, France, Russia

  • A new kind of warfare

    • Deadly machine guns

    • No hope for short war

  • The First Battle of the Marne

    • French counterattack from Paris

    • 250,000 dead – Russia mobilizes


C the war reaches a stalemate
C. The War Reaches a Stalemate

  • Fighting in the trenches

    • trench warfare - stalemate

    • “no-man’s land”

  • New weapons

    • Poison gas, tanks

  • Airplanes

    • Dogfights and aces

    • Red Baron – 80 allied planes


Lecture 8 2 the u s in wwi

Lecture 8.2 “The U.S in WWI”

DRQ 8.2

Describe at least three of the new styles of fighting or weapons used in WWI for the first time


D united states in wwi
D. United States in WWI

  • Wilson declares neutrality

    • Reflected tradition of isolationism

  • Leaning toward the Allies

    • Ties to Britain/France

    • American war goods

  • German submarine warfare

    • U-boats – “undersea boat”

    • Unrestricted submarine warfare

    • Wilson protests – tension rise


E heading toward war
E. Heading Toward War

  • 1915 – Lusitania sunk by U-boat

    • 1200 die – 128 Americans

    • Americans outraged

    • Germany issues Sussex pledge

  • Wilson’s re-election

    • slogan - “he kept us out of war”

    • Germany resumes unrestricted submarine warfare

  • The Zimmerman Note

    • Germany proposes deal with Mexico

    • Note intercepted - angers Americans

  • The U.S. declares war

    • Russian Revolution – Russia out

    • Germany sinks more U.S. ships

    • 1917 – Congress declares war


F americans in europe
F. Americans in Europe

  • Raising an army

    • Selective Service Act passed

    • Minority soldiers segregated

  • Arriving in Europe

    • Pershing leads the AEF

    • Convoy system protects U.S. ships

  • Allied setbacks

    • Russian Revolution – Russia out

    • Germans launch series of attacks

  • U.S. troops in action

    • Conditions of trench life

    • Troops provide morale boost

  • American military women

    • “Hello Girls” – radio operators

    • Nurses, typists, bookkeepers


G the war ends
G. The War Ends

  • 1918 – 2nd Battle of the Marne

  • Battle of the Argonne Forest

    • U.S. – 120,000 casualties

  • The armistice

    • German home front struggling

    • Nov. 11, 1918 – armistice signed

  • The “Great War”

    • “the war to end all wars”?


Lecture 8 3 the home front

Lecture 8.3 “The Home Front”

DRQ 8.3

List the three reasons why the United States entered WWI


H mobilizing the economy
H. Mobilizing the Economy

  • 1917 – War Revenue Act passed

  • Government borrows money

    • Liberty Bonds from Americans

  • Regulating industry

    • Bernard Baruch heads the WIB

  • Regulating food

    • Herbert Hoover heads the Food Administration

    • Farm production, victory gardens

    • 1919 – 18th Amendment passed

  • Regulating fuel

    • Fuel Administration - conserve fuel

    • daylight savings time instituted

  • Supplying U.S. and Allied troops

    • U.S. major supplier for Allies


I mobilizing workers
I. Mobilizing Workers

  • Effects of war production

    • Harsher working conditions

  • National War Labor Board

    • Judged labor disputes

    • Set policies to assist workers

  • Women’s war efforts

    • women take on industrial jobs

    • after war – women return home

  • Influenza epidemic

    • 1918-1919 – flu epidemic kills thousands


J influencing public opinion
J. Influencing Public Opinion

  • Winning American support

    • CPI – Committee on Public Information created

    • Propaganda used to persuade

    • German culture suppressed

  • Limiting Anti-war Speech

    • 1917 – Espionage Act

    • 1918 – Sedition Act

    • Schenck v. United States

      • Limits to free speech upheld


Lecture 8 4 peace without victory

Lecture 8.4 “Peace Without Victory”

DRQ 8.4

Describe three ways in which the U.S. mobilized itself on the home front in order to win WWI


K the fourteen points
K. The Fourteen Points

  • Wilson’s Peace Plan

  • many points dealt with “self-determination”

  • 14th point – League of Nations

  • reflected Progressive ideals


L paris peace conference
L. Paris Peace Conference

  • Wilson leaves for Paris

  • The conference opens

    • The “Big Four” included:

      • Woodrow Wilson – U.S.

      • David Lloyd George - Britain

      • Georges Clemenceau – France

      • Vittorio Orlando – Italy

  • Conflicting needs

    • Peace v. punish

  • The Treaty of Versailles

    • German reparations

    • War-guilt clause

    • New nations created

    • League of Nations established


M the fight over the treaty
M. The Fight over the Treaty

  • U.S. Senate refuses to ratify

    • Henry Cabot Lodge

    • The “Reservationists”

    • Wilson appeals to the people

      • Suffers stroke

    • U.S. does not sign

      • Signs separate treaties


N the impact of wwi
N. The Impact of WWI

  • Cost of war

    • 14 million dead; 7 million disabled

    • $280 billion

  • Political impact

    • End of monarchies

    • Rise of Communism

  • Economic impact

    • European economies devastated

  • Social impact

    • U.S. women into the workforce

    • African Americans move North

  • Impact in Europe

    • France in ruins, Britain in debt

    • Germany crippled