Historical Earthquakes: Personal Comments. Willie Lee (Feb. 21, 2011)
Willie Lee (Feb. 21, 2011)
"... old seismograms, if properly interpreted, provide invaluable information on earthquakes in the past, and every effort should be made to save them, regardless of their quality, from possible loss and to make copies in an easily readable form."
Hiroo Kanamori (1988)
1880: First effective seismographs (Ewing-Gray-Milne).
1896: BAAS Committee on Seismology (Milne global network).
1901: Geophysical Inst. at Göttingen (Wiechert seismograph).
1903: International Association of Seismology (now IASPEI).
1906: Electromagnetic seismograph developed by Galitzin.
1930s: Benioff seismometers and strain seismograph.
1949: Seismicity of the Earth (Gutenberg & Richter) published.
1963: World-wide Standardized Seis. Network (WWSSN).
1964: International Seismological Centre (ISC).
1970s: Digital era began; Moment tensor inversion;
IASPEI/Unesco Historical Seismogram Filming Project.
1991: IRIS Data Management Center.
Milne Seismogram (at Kew):No damping, low sensitivity, & poor time resolution.Wiechert Seismogram (at Göttingen):Smoked paper records are difficult to scan.
Galitzin and Benioff Seismograms: High sensitivity and photographic recording.Galitzin seismograms: from ~1910, but hard to find;Benioff seismograms: from ~1932
Osaka (1901), & Zikawei (1903).
in Taiwan, GDSN worldwide, etc.)
contains scanned seismograms, station information, and some useful books and papers.