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Petroleum Systems (Part One) Source, Generation, and Migration. Petroleum Systems. Elements. Processes. Source Rock Migration Route Reservoir Rock Seal Rock Trap. Generation Migration Accumulation Preservation. Petroleum System Summary Source (Material and Rocks)

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Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration

Petroleum Systems

(Part One)

Source, Generation, and Migration


Petroleum systems
Petroleum Systems

Elements

Processes

Source Rock

Migration Route

Reservoir Rock

Seal Rock

Trap

Generation

Migration

Accumulation

Preservation


Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration


Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration

Source Material

Non-Biogenic Origins

Biogenic (Kerogen) – Host rock (Shales and Coals)

Kerogen Types

Type I – Algal (oil prone) sapropelic

Type II – Mixed

Type III – Woody (gas prone) humic


Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration

Siljan ‘Ring’

Inorganic Gas Prospect

Drilled to ~22,000’ in 1987

Found abiogenic methane,

but no poro-perm



Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration

Source Material

Non-Biogenic Origins

Biogenic (Kerogen Types)

Type I – Algal (oil prone)sapropelic

Type II – Mixed

Type III – Woody (gas prone)humic

Host rock (Shales and Coals)


Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration

Types of Petroleum

Oil and gas are formed by the thermal cracking of organic compounds buried in fine-grained rocks.

Algae = Hydrogen rich = Oil-prone

Wood = Hydrogen poor = Gas-prone


Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration

Kerogen Types

Type 1

Type 2

Type 3


Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration

From the Paleontological Research Institute <http://www.priweb.org/ed/pgws/history/pennsylvania/pennsylvania.html>


Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration

Ganges Deltaic <http://www.priweb.org/ed/pgws/history/pennsylvania/pennsylvania.html>

Sediments


Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration

Modern Mahakam Delta Plain <http://www.priweb.org/ed/pgws/history/pennsylvania/pennsylvania.html>

East Kalimantan, Indonesia

(A Rich Source of Kerogen)


Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration

Inferred Middle Booch Depositional Environments <http://www.priweb.org/ed/pgws/history/pennsylvania/pennsylvania.html>

Arkoma Basinin Oklahoma


Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration

Source Material <http://www.priweb.org/ed/pgws/history/pennsylvania/pennsylvania.html>

Non-Biogenic Origins

Biogenic (Kerogen Types)

Type I – Algal (oil prone) sapropelic

Type II – Mixed

Type III – Woody (gas prone) humic

Host Rock (Shales and Coals)


Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration

The Origin of Petroleum <http://www.priweb.org/ed/pgws/history/pennsylvania/pennsylvania.html>

Organic-rich

Source Rock

Thermally Matured

Organic Matter

Oil


Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration

Source Rock for Petroleum <http://www.priweb.org/ed/pgws/history/pennsylvania/pennsylvania.html>

Organic-Rich

Thin Laminae

Total Organic Carbon

Hydrogen

Index

3.39

378

1 Inch

LOMPOC Quarry Sample

Monterey Formation, CA


Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration

Woodford Shale (Oklahoma) <http://www.priweb.org/ed/pgws/history/pennsylvania/pennsylvania.html>


Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration

Channel-Fill Sandstone Resting on Marine Shale <http://www.priweb.org/ed/pgws/history/pennsylvania/pennsylvania.html>

Red Fork (Oklahoma)


Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration

Coals and Coaly Shales <http://www.priweb.org/ed/pgws/history/pennsylvania/pennsylvania.html>

San Juan Basin (New Mexico)


Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration

Source rock kerogen can <http://www.priweb.org/ed/pgws/history/pennsylvania/pennsylvania.html>

be correlated to oil/gas

found in carrier beds

and reservoirs


Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration

Basinal Summary Chart <http://www.priweb.org/ed/pgws/history/pennsylvania/pennsylvania.html>

T.O.C.

Total Organic Carbon


Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration

  • Petroleum System Summary <http://www.priweb.org/ed/pgws/history/pennsylvania/pennsylvania.html>

  • Source (Material and Rocks)

  • Generation (Maturation)

  • Migration

  • Trap

  • Reservoir


Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration

The Petroleum Kitchen <http://www.priweb.org/ed/pgws/history/pennsylvania/pennsylvania.html>

Temperature-Pressure-Time

Geothermal Gradient: (thermogenic hydrocarbons)

Range: <1 to 11 degrees F per 100’

Typical Sedimentary Basins: 1.0-1.7 degrees F per 100’

Good average 1.2

Oil window of ~ 120-300F (50-150C), or about 5,000-20,000’

In practice, oil below 15,000’ rare

Gas – no practical limit to stable depth

Cracking of oil to gas controlled by source kerogen and temperature

Deep basins mostly gas

Practical limits related to maturity of source – not reservoir


Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration

Hydrocarbon Occurrence & Thermal Maturity <http://www.priweb.org/ed/pgws/history/pennsylvania/pennsylvania.html>


Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration

Oklahoma <http://www.priweb.org/ed/pgws/history/pennsylvania/pennsylvania.html>

Geologic Provinces


Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration

Map of Oklahoma Oil and Gas Fields; Distinguished By GOR and Coalbed Methane Production. From Boyd (2002)

(GOR Cutoffs: Oil <5,000; Oil and Gas 5,000-20,000; Gas > 20,000)


Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration

Schematic Cross-section of the Anadarko Basin Coalbed Methane Production. From Boyd (2002)

Modified from Witt and others (1971).


Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration

Geologic Time Scale Coalbed Methane Production. From Boyd (2002)

Modified From Harland (1990) and Hansen (1991).


Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration

Regional Stratigraphic Cross-Section Coalbed Methane Production. From Boyd (2002)

(Hung from Top of Booch)

Oklahoma Arkoma Basin (Booch)

(Present burial depth not necessarily maximum burial depth)


Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration

Arkoma Basin Coalbed Methane Production. From Boyd (2002)

Estimated Overburden Removal


Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration

  • Petroleum System Summary Coalbed Methane Production. From Boyd (2002)

  • Source (Material and Rocks)

  • Generation (Maturation)

  • Migration (Expulsion)

  • Trap

  • Reservoir


Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration

Source Rock for Petroleum Coalbed Methane Production. From Boyd (2002)

Organic-Rich

Thin Laminae

1 Inch

LOMPOC Quarry Sample

Monterey Formation, CA


Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration

Migration Pathways Coalbed Methane Production. From Boyd (2002)

  • Hydrocarbon Expulsion

  • Vertical vs. Horizontal Migration

  • Residual Saturations


Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration

Trap Coalbed Methane Production. From Boyd (2002)

Trap

Trap

Present-Day Petroleum System

GEOGRAPHIC EXTENT OF PETROLEUM SYSTEM

Present-Day

A

A’

STRATIGRAPHIC

EXTENT OF

PETROLEUM SYSTEM

Basement

Overburden

Seal

Petroleum accumulation

Reservoir

Top of oil window

Source

Bottom of oil window

Underburden

Magoon and Dow, 1994


Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration

Inferred Middle Booch Depositional Environments Coalbed Methane Production. From Boyd (2002)

Arkoma Basinin Oklahoma


Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration

Petroleum System Coalbed Methane Production. From Boyd (2002)

Spill Point

1) Early Generation

Spill Point

Seal Rock

(Mudstone)

Reservoir Rock

(Sandstone)

Migration from

‘Kitchen’

Gas beginning to displace oil

2) Late Generation

Displaced oil accumulates

Gas displaces all oil


Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration

The Leaky Trap Coalbed Methane Production. From Boyd (2002)


Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration

Petroleum System Processes Coalbed Methane Production. From Boyd (2002)

Accumulation

Source Rock


Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration

Schematic Migrational Pathways Coalbed Methane Production. From Boyd (2002)

From Basin to Shelf


Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration

Asphalt Seep Coalbed Methane Production. From Boyd (2002)

Viola Limestone (Oklahoma)

The End of the Road


Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration

On to the Trap Coalbed Methane Production. From Boyd (2002)


Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration

One More Thing……. Coalbed Methane Production. From Boyd (2002)

Basin Assignments

  • North American

    • San Juan Michigan

    • East Texas Appalachian

    • Gulf Coast Big Horn

    • Anadarko Salina

    • Arkoma Pedregosa

    • Powder River Denver

    • Wind River Forest City

    • Green River

    • Williston

    • Delaware

    • Midland

    • Black Warrior

    • Fort Worth

    • Others………..


Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration

Facts to Consider Coalbed Methane Production. From Boyd (2002)

Basin

Location, Size, Maximum Depth, Age (from basement to outcrop + max subsidence), Stratigraphy

Other items; eg - Structure (extensional, compressional)

Petroleum System

Source Rocks: Name(s), kerogen type(s), TOC, depth to top of oil window, kitchen location

Migration Pathways: Carrier bed(s), faults, distance (vertical and horizontal)

Traps: Structural, Stratigraphic, Combination (dominant type)

Reservoirs: Names, Rock types (both reservoir and seal)

Representative Fields (The biggest ones)

OOIP, OGIP, RF, Cum Prod

Other notable Facts – anything else you want to add (history, technology, companies, etc)

Powerpoint presentation: 10-12 slides (or more), approach as management presentation in which object is to highgrade

future exploration opportunities for your company. For any answers you cannot find, treat as source of increased risk of entry.


Petroleum systems part one source generation and migration

Map of Selected Sedimentary Basins Coalbed Methane Production. From Boyd (2002)

1-Williston Basin2-Powder River Basin3-Denver Basin4-Salina Basin5-Forest City Basin6-Kennedy Basin7-Big Horn Basin8-Wind River Basin9-Laramide Basin10-Washakie-Red Desert B.11-Green River Basin