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Petroleum Systems (Part One) Source, Generation, and Migration. Petroleum Systems. Elements. Processes. Source Rock Migration Route Reservoir Rock Seal Rock Trap. Generation Migration Accumulation Preservation. Petroleum System Summary Source (Material and Rocks)

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Petroleum Systems (Part One) Source, Generation, and Migration


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    1. Petroleum Systems (Part One) Source, Generation, and Migration

    2. Petroleum Systems Elements Processes Source Rock Migration Route Reservoir Rock Seal Rock Trap Generation Migration Accumulation Preservation

    3. Petroleum System Summary • Source (Material and Rocks) • Generation (Maturation) • Migration • Trap • Reservoir

    4. Source Material Non-Biogenic Origins Biogenic (Kerogen) – Host rock (Shales and Coals) Kerogen Types Type I – Algal (oil prone) sapropelic Type II – Mixed Type III – Woody (gas prone) humic

    5. Siljan ‘Ring’ Inorganic Gas Prospect Drilled to ~22,000’ in 1987 Found abiogenic methane, but no poro-perm

    6. Sedimentary Rocks – Where the Action Is

    7. Source Material Non-Biogenic Origins Biogenic (Kerogen Types) Type I – Algal (oil prone)sapropelic Type II – Mixed Type III – Woody (gas prone)humic Host rock (Shales and Coals)

    8. Types of Petroleum Oil and gas are formed by the thermal cracking of organic compounds buried in fine-grained rocks. Algae = Hydrogen rich = Oil-prone Wood = Hydrogen poor = Gas-prone

    9. Kerogen Types Type 1 Type 2 Type 3

    10. From the Paleontological Research Institute <http://www.priweb.org/ed/pgws/history/pennsylvania/pennsylvania.html>

    11. Ganges Deltaic Sediments

    12. Modern Mahakam Delta Plain East Kalimantan, Indonesia (A Rich Source of Kerogen)

    13. Inferred Middle Booch Depositional Environments Arkoma Basinin Oklahoma

    14. Source Material Non-Biogenic Origins Biogenic (Kerogen Types) Type I – Algal (oil prone) sapropelic Type II – Mixed Type III – Woody (gas prone) humic Host Rock (Shales and Coals)

    15. The Origin of Petroleum Organic-rich Source Rock Thermally Matured Organic Matter Oil

    16. Source Rock for Petroleum Organic-Rich Thin Laminae Total Organic Carbon Hydrogen Index 3.39 378 1 Inch LOMPOC Quarry Sample Monterey Formation, CA

    17. Woodford Shale (Oklahoma)

    18. Channel-Fill Sandstone Resting on Marine Shale Red Fork (Oklahoma)

    19. Coals and Coaly Shales San Juan Basin (New Mexico)

    20. Source rock kerogen can be correlated to oil/gas found in carrier beds and reservoirs

    21. Basinal Summary Chart T.O.C. Total Organic Carbon

    22. Petroleum System Summary • Source (Material and Rocks) • Generation (Maturation) • Migration • Trap • Reservoir

    23. The Petroleum Kitchen Temperature-Pressure-Time Geothermal Gradient: (thermogenic hydrocarbons) Range: <1 to 11 degrees F per 100’ Typical Sedimentary Basins: 1.0-1.7 degrees F per 100’ Good average 1.2 Oil window of ~ 120-300F (50-150C), or about 5,000-20,000’ In practice, oil below 15,000’ rare Gas – no practical limit to stable depth Cracking of oil to gas controlled by source kerogen and temperature Deep basins mostly gas Practical limits related to maturity of source – not reservoir

    24. Hydrocarbon Occurrence & Thermal Maturity

    25. Oklahoma Geologic Provinces

    26. Map of Oklahoma Oil and Gas Fields; Distinguished By GOR and Coalbed Methane Production. From Boyd (2002) (GOR Cutoffs: Oil <5,000; Oil and Gas 5,000-20,000; Gas > 20,000)

    27. Schematic Cross-section of the Anadarko Basin Modified from Witt and others (1971).

    28. Geologic Time Scale Modified From Harland (1990) and Hansen (1991).

    29. Regional Stratigraphic Cross-Section (Hung from Top of Booch) Oklahoma Arkoma Basin (Booch) (Present burial depth not necessarily maximum burial depth)

    30. Arkoma Basin Estimated Overburden Removal

    31. Petroleum System Summary • Source (Material and Rocks) • Generation (Maturation) • Migration (Expulsion) • Trap • Reservoir

    32. Source Rock for Petroleum Organic-Rich Thin Laminae 1 Inch LOMPOC Quarry Sample Monterey Formation, CA

    33. Migration Pathways • Hydrocarbon Expulsion • Vertical vs. Horizontal Migration • Residual Saturations

    34. Trap Trap Trap Present-Day Petroleum System GEOGRAPHIC EXTENT OF PETROLEUM SYSTEM Present-Day A A’ STRATIGRAPHIC EXTENT OF PETROLEUM SYSTEM Basement Overburden Seal Petroleum accumulation Reservoir Top of oil window Source Bottom of oil window Underburden Magoon and Dow, 1994

    35. Inferred Middle Booch Depositional Environments Arkoma Basinin Oklahoma

    36. Petroleum System Spill Point 1) Early Generation Spill Point Seal Rock (Mudstone) Reservoir Rock (Sandstone) Migration from ‘Kitchen’ Gas beginning to displace oil 2) Late Generation Displaced oil accumulates Gas displaces all oil

    37. The Leaky Trap

    38. Petroleum System Processes Accumulation Source Rock

    39. Schematic Migrational Pathways From Basin to Shelf

    40. Asphalt Seep Viola Limestone (Oklahoma) The End of the Road

    41. On to the Trap

    42. One More Thing……. Basin Assignments • North American • San Juan Michigan • East Texas Appalachian • Gulf Coast Big Horn • Anadarko Salina • Arkoma Pedregosa • Powder River Denver • Wind River Forest City • Green River • Williston • Delaware • Midland • Black Warrior • Fort Worth • Others………..

    43. Facts to Consider Basin Location, Size, Maximum Depth, Age (from basement to outcrop + max subsidence), Stratigraphy Other items; eg - Structure (extensional, compressional) Petroleum System Source Rocks: Name(s), kerogen type(s), TOC, depth to top of oil window, kitchen location Migration Pathways: Carrier bed(s), faults, distance (vertical and horizontal) Traps: Structural, Stratigraphic, Combination (dominant type) Reservoirs: Names, Rock types (both reservoir and seal) Representative Fields (The biggest ones) OOIP, OGIP, RF, Cum Prod Other notable Facts – anything else you want to add (history, technology, companies, etc) Powerpoint presentation: 10-12 slides (or more), approach as management presentation in which object is to highgrade future exploration opportunities for your company. For any answers you cannot find, treat as source of increased risk of entry.

    44. Map of Selected Sedimentary Basins 1-Williston Basin2-Powder River Basin3-Denver Basin4-Salina Basin5-Forest City Basin6-Kennedy Basin7-Big Horn Basin8-Wind River Basin9-Laramide Basin10-Washakie-Red Desert B.11-Green River Basin