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Mutations - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Mutations. What is a mutation?. Changes in the DNA sequence that affect genetic information Normal: Thesunwashotbuttheoldmandidnotgethishat . The sun was hot but the old man did not get his hat. Translation changed in ribosome: t hes unw ash otb utt heo ldm and idn otg ish at.

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what is a mutation
What is a mutation?
  • Changes in the DNA sequence that affect genetic information
    • Normal:Thesunwashotbuttheoldmandidnotgethishat.The sun was hot but the old man did not get his hat.
    • Translation changed in ribosome:t hesunw ash otbuttheoldm and idnotgish at.
    • Missing letter or base:the sun wshotbuttheoldm and idnotgish at.
genetic mutations
Genetic mutations
  • Not all are harmful
  • Most cause little/no change
  • Have to be reproductive cell mutations to repeat in future generations
  • Somatic mutations not inheritable
how do mutations happen
How do mutations happen?
  • Environmental agents
    • UV light, chemicals, radiation
  • Meiosis
    • more/less chromosomes
  • Mistakes in DNA replication
what happens when there is a mutation
What happens when there is a mutation?
  • The mistake can cause the cell to make an incorrect protein
    • see a different phenotype than normal ex. White Buffalo
  • If the mutation occurs in a single type of cell,
    • it will affect only the cell that carries it ex. Skin cells
  • If the mutation occurs in a sex cell,
    • it can be passed to the offspring and affect their phenotype
  • Mutations can introduce genetic variation
    • the change can be helpful, harmful or neither
where do they happen
Where do they happen?
  • Gene Mutations
    • replication
    • transcription
    • translation
  • Chromosome Structural Changes
    • Mitosis
    • Meiosis
gene mutations
Gene Mutations
  • Point Mutations
    • involve one nucleotide
    • single point in a DNA sequence
  • Substitute one base for another
gene mutations1
Gene Mutations
  • Frameshift
    • insertion or deletion of a base
    • shifts entire sequence for translation
    • different group of amino acids
    • changes the protein function
chromosome structural changes
Deletion- loss of all or part of chromosome

- missing genes may prove fatal

Duplication- segment repeated

- usually harmless

Chromosome Structural Changes
chromosome structural changes1
Inversion- connection broken & sequence reversed- may be fatal

Translocation- non-homologous chromosomes sharing or exchanging information

Chromosome Structural Changes