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Rise of the Hospital: 1700-1900. Islamic Medical Institutions. Hospitals More medically oriented than their western counterparts Developed a teaching function sooner, as well. Types of Hospitals. Poor law hospitals Royal hospitals (London only) Endowed by Henry VIII Voluntary hospitals

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Islamic medical institutions
Islamic Medical Institutions

  • Hospitals

  • More medically oriented than their western counterparts

  • Developed a teaching function sooner, as well


Types of hospitals
Types of Hospitals

  • Poor law hospitals

  • Royal hospitals (London only)

    • Endowed by Henry VIII

  • Voluntary hospitals

    • First emerged in 18th century


Voluntary general hospitals
Voluntary General Hospitals

  • Also intended to care for the poor

  • Depended on donations

  • 1st established in London in 1720 (Westminster)

  • Last – St. Mary’s (1851)


Rise of the hospital 1700 1900


Rise of the hospital 1700 1900


Rise of the hospital 1700 1900

  • Patients selected on the basis of:

    • Moral behaviour

    • Utilitarianism

  • Preferred to admit adult males who were gainfully employed

  • Utilitarian principles influenced much of charitable work in the 19th century


Rise of the hospital 1700 1900


Rise of the hospital 1700 1900


Specialist voluntary hospitals

Specialist Voluntary Hospitals charities

1. Lock Hospitals


Rise of the hospital 1700 1900

  • Admitted women suffering from VD charities

  • Reflected British middle class anxieties about prostitutes & working class women

  • Purpose was to morally reform prostitutes


Rise of the hospital 1700 1900

  • Linda Mahood. charitiesThe Magdalenes: Prostitution in the Nineteenth Century

  • Judith Walkowitz. Prostitution in Victorian Society: Women, Class and the State

  • New approaches to old problems often signal shifts in social beliefs


Rise of the hospital 1700 1900


Rise of the hospital 1700 1900


Rise of the hospital 1700 1900

  • Glasgow system charities

  • Interlocking system of repression

    • Communicable diseases acts

    • Magdalene homes

    • Lock hospitals

  • Police could arrest any woman suspected of prostitution


Rise of the hospital 1700 1900

  • Subjected to medical examination charities

  • If infected, to Lock hospital

  • If not, to magdalene home

  • Controversy over use of speculum

  • Resistance to CD acts by feminists


2 lying in hospitals
2. Lying-in Hospitals charities

  • Provided limited maternity services to working class women

  • Contributed to medicalization of childbirth


3 infectious fever isolation hospitals
3. Infectious (fever, isolation) hospitals charities

  • Less popular

  • Less financial support from donors

  • No one wanted them in their neighbourhood



Hospital architecture
Hospital Architecture Hospitals

  • In early years, any building would do

  • Gradual emphasis on the role that architecture played in:

    • Health of patients

    • Moral development of patients


Rise of the hospital 1700 1900

Nightingale Hospitals

Development of pavilion hospitals

St. Thomas Hospital, c. 1870

Design of Nightingale wards

2500 cu. ft. air/hr

Width 30 ft.

Beds on exterior walls


Rise of the hospital 1700 1900


Rise of the hospital 1700 1900

  • Adams & Theodore. “Designing for ‘the little convalescents’: Children’s Hospitals in Toronto & Montreal.” Canadian Bulletin for the History of Medicine

  • Surroundings of hospital were completely at odds with normal living conditions of working class children & parents


Rise of the hospital 1700 1900


Rise of the hospital 1700 1900


Hospitals as social systems
Hospitals as Social Systems convalescents’: Children’s Hospitals in Toronto & Montreal.”

  • Types of patients

    • Sex

    • Occupations

    • Financial circumstances

  • Type of care

  • Length of stay


Rise of the hospital 1700 1900

  • Therapeutic regimes convalescents’: Children’s Hospitals in Toronto & Montreal.”

  • Hospital routines

  • Moralizing strategies

  • Patients’ resistance


Rise of the hospital 1700 1900

  • Staffing convalescents’: Children’s Hospitals in Toronto & Montreal.”

    • Nurses

    • Medical staff

    • Medical students

  • Impact on mortality


Crisis change
Crisis & Change convalescents’: Children’s Hospitals in Toronto & Montreal.”

  • Significant turmoil in voluntary hospitals in late 19th century

  • Erosion of absolute authority of hospital governors


Rise of the hospital 1700 1900

  • Financial convalescents’: Children’s Hospitals in Toronto & Montreal.”

    • Linkages with other charities

    • Working class contributions

    • Advent of the paying patient

  • Power struggles between governors & medical profession