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Water Sanitation. Stella Marie M. Doyungan, Ph.D. Water…. - most ubiquitous compound on earth. - in continuous circulation, a process known as water cycle. Diagram of the water cycle. Water…. - essential substance. Important physiological reactions within the

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water sanitation

Water Sanitation

Stella Marie M. Doyungan, Ph.D.

slide2

Water….

- most ubiquitous compound on earth

- in continuous circulation, a process known as water cycle

Diagram of the water cycle

slide3

Water…

- essential substance

Important physiological reactions within the

cell that must be accomplished within water

- replication of DNA

- reactions that regulate and control replication

- catabolic and anabolic processes

slide4

Sources of Water

1. Atmospheric water

  • moisture contained in clouds and precipitated as snow, sleet,
  • hail and rain

2. Surface water

- lakes, streams, rivers and oceans

3. Ground water

- springs and wells

In springs, ground water reaches the surface through a rock fissure

or exposed porous soil.

Wells are made by sinking a shaft into the ground to penetrate

the ground water level

slide5

Factors that affect quality of surface waters

1. Time of the year

2. Amount and types of discharge into the body of water

Sources of pollution

a. Decayed vegetation

b. Fertilizers

c. Other agricultural chemicals

d. Sewage

e. Animal wastes

slide6

Sources of contaminants in wells

1. Sewage

2. Septic tanks or associated drainage fields

2.

3. Leaks/ cracks/improperly sealed metal casings

4. Flood

5. Surface debris

slide7

Table 1. Recommended distances of wells from sources of

contamination.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

Potential sources Suggested minimum distance

of contamination from well (in feet)a

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Septic tanks 100

Sewers 100

Barnyards or feeding lots 200

Chemical disposal area 75-200

Stream 75

Landfill 200

------------------------------------------------------------------------

aDistances may vary greatly, depending on soil conditions and amount of water

present.

slide8

Uses of water in the food industry

Water use in canning plants

-----------------------------------------

In-plant use Total use(%)

-----------------------------------------

Raw product washing 15

Product transport 10

Product preparation 10

Incorporation in product 6

Steam and water sterilization 15

of containers

Container cooling 36

Plant clean-up 8

-----------------------------------------

  • Formulation
  • 2. Conveying
  • 3. Cooling
  • 4. Steam and
  • boilers
slide9

Water treatment

  • manipulation of a water source to achieve water quality
  • that meets specific standards set by established regulatory
  • agencies
slide10

Components in the water supply that affect water quality

1. Organic components

a. Naturally occurring organics

  • plant and animal degradation products
  • (fulvic and humic acids)

-microbial product (geosmin- imparts a musty,earthy odor

taste to water

b. Synthetic organics

-pesticides

-polychlorinated biphenyls

-halogenated methane

-ethane derivatives

slide11

Components…

2. Inorganic components

slide12

Components…

3. Microorganisms

- harmless and harmful microorganisms

slide13

Some common diseases transmitted by water

Viruses Protozoa

Poliomyelitis Giardiasis

Hepatitis A Amebiasis

Reovirus infection Coccidiosis

Coxsackie virus infection

Bacteria

Cholera

Shigellosis

Typhoid fever

Salmonellosis

Enteropathogenic E.coli infection

Yersinia gastroenteritis

slide14

Water purification

Potable water- water that is free of disease-producing

microorganisms and chemical substances

deleterious to health

slide15

Principal operations employed in a

municipal water-purification plant.

1.Sedimentation

– removal of suspended particles

2.Coagulation

- coagulates suspended materials

making them easier to remove by settling

slide16

3.Filtration

Common and simplest filter- bed of sand

followed by a series of a bed of charcoal.

Charcoal removes off-flavors color and

organic solvents from water .

4.Softening:

- removal of metallic ions,Ca.Mg, Fe and Mn

slide17

5. Disinfection:

  • Disinfectant used:
  • Chlorine – most common
  • Chloramine
  • Chlorine dioxide
  • Ozone
slide18

Table 2. Suggested concentrations of chlorine for

various purposes

-----------------------------------------------------------

Purpose concentration (ppm)

---------------------------------------------------------------------

Drinking water 0.2

Process water 0-0.5

Cleaning 10-20

Sanitizing 100-250

Cooling (can) 0.5-10.0

Conveying water 0.5-5.0

Belt sprays 1.5-3.0

Hydro-cooling meat 5.0-200

Fish thawing 5.0-10.0

----------------------------------------------------------------------

slide19

Table 3. Effective chlorine levels

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

Microorganisms Concentration (ppm)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

Algae 2.0

Bacteria (gram-negative cells) 0.2-5.0

Spores 150-250

Mold (hyphae) 100

Spores 135-500

Viruses 0.2-3.25

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

slide20

Table 4. Effect of chlorination of cooling water on spoilage ratea

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Swelled cans/1000

-------------------------------------- -----

Can size Product Chlorinated Non-chlorinated

cooling water cooling water

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

306 x 302 Vacuum-packed corn 0.46 3.44

603 x 408 Vacuum-packed corn 0.39 5.17

303 x 406 Cream-style corn 0.29 1.17

603 X 700 Cream-style corn 1.37 7.80

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

a from Herson and Hulland, 1980

slide21

Water

Water Quality Determination

Microbiological

characteristics

Physical

characteristics

Chemical

characteristics

slide22

Table 5. Environmental Protection Agency National Interim

Primary Drinking water regulation (1975); mg/L unless

indicated

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Constituent Maximum contaminant level

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Inorganic chemicals

Arsenic 0.05

Barium 1

Cadmium 0.010

Chromium 0.05

Fluoride 1.42

Lead 0.05

Mercury 0.002

Nitrate (as N) 10

Selenium 0.01

Silver 0.05

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

slide23

Table 5. Environmental Protection Agency National Interim

Primary Drinking water regulation (1975); mg/L unless

indicated

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Constituent Maximum contaminant level

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Organic chemicals

Chlorinated hydrocarbons

Endrin 0.0002

Lindane 0.004

Methoxyclor 0.1

Toxaphene 0.005

Chlorophenoxys

2,4-D 0.1

2,4,5-TP Silvex 0.01

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

slide24

Table 5. Environmental Protection Agency National Interim

Primary Drinking water regulation (1975); mg/L unless

indicated

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Constituent Maximum contaminant level

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Physical parameters

Turbidity (TU) 1

Radioactivity

Gross alpha (pCi/L) 15

Radium 226 and 228 (pCi/L) 5

Tritium (pCi/L) 20,000

Strintium 90 (pci/L) 8

Bacteriological factors

Coliform bacteria (per 100 ml) 1

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

slide25

Microbiological examination of water

1. Total bacterial count

Water of good quality should give a low count <100/ml

slide28

2.Enumeration of Coliforms and E. coli

a. Colony count

1 ml 1 ml

10g sample

90 ml 9 ml 9ml

Agar plates

(VRBA)

Dilution : 1:10 1:100 1:1000

Count the dark red colonies. Pick some colonies and inoculate LB and BGLB

tubes. Incubate LB tubes at 35oC and BGLB tubes at 44-45oC. Growth and gas

production in LB and BGLB tubes confirm the presence of coliforms and E. coli

respectively.

slide29

b.Multiple tube technique

1ml 1ml 1ml 1ml

9ml 9ml 9ml 9ml

1:10 1:100 1:1000 1:10000

Sample being

tested

1ml 1ml 1ml 1ml

Observe for growth

slide30

Examples of Determining MPN Estimates: Five tube series

(1-g sample aliquot per tube)

_________________________________________________________________________________

Sample volume (g)

-------------------------------------------------- Reported MPN

Example 1:10 1:100 1:1000 1:10000 positive values estimate/g

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

a 5/5a5/5 2/5 0/5 5-2-0 490

b 5/5 2/5 0/5 0/5 5-2-0 49

c 5/5 5/5 3/5 2/5 5-3-2 1400

d 5/5 5/5 5/5 5/5 5-5-5 >16,000

__________________________________________________________________________________

aNumerator No. of positive tubes

------------- = --------------------------

Denominiator No. of tubes inoculated

To obtain the MPN per gram:

[(MPN/g from Table/100)] x dilution factor of the middle tube = MPN/g

slide31

Fecal coliform group and E. coli

determination

1. Subculture all positive tubes showing gas to EC

broth.

2. Incubate for 24 h at 44.5- 45.5oC.

3. Calculate MPN fecal coliforms/g or ml

4. Subculture all EC tubes by streaking on

EMB plates.

5. Incubate for 24 h at 35oC.

slide32

6. Examine plates for typical nucleated,

dark-centered colonies with or without sheen.

7. Pick typical colonies and transfer to PCA slant.

8. Gram stain , subject to IMViC tests and

inoculate the cultures to LST tubes.

9. Compute MPN of E. coli per g or ml,

considering gram-negative, non-sporeforming

rods, producing gas in lactose and producing

++-- or -+-- IMViC patterns as E. coli.