psy 369 psycholinguistics n.
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
PSY 369: Psycholinguistics

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 36

PSY 369: Psycholinguistics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 103 Views
  • Uploaded on

PSY 369: Psycholinguistics. Language Acquisition. Acquiring language. Student in my psycholinguistics course. Dr. Cutting, language sure is complicated. How do you expect us to learn all this stuff?. Acquiring language. Student in my psycholinguistics course. Whadda’ ya mean, mommy.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'PSY 369: Psycholinguistics' - irving


Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
psy 369 psycholinguistics

PSY 369: Psycholinguistics

Language Acquisition

acquiring language
Acquiring language
  • Student in my psycholinguistics course

Dr. Cutting, language sure

is complicated. How do you

expect us to learn all this stuff?

acquiring language1
Acquiring language
  • Student in my psycholinguistics course

Whadda’ ya mean, mommy.

I can talk.

I can understand what you say.

What’s so hard?

  • 2 year old
acquiring language2
Acquiring language
  • Student in my psycholinguistics course
  • How do we (humans) do it? How do we learn to use this complex behavior?
  • 2 year old
overview
Overview
  • Some of the major issues
    • Imitation vs Innateness
      • Born to walk
      • Born to talk?
        • How much explicit teaching do we get?
    • Commonalities across languages and cultures
      • Language is complex everywhere
        • Sounds, words, syntax, and more
        • No primitive (simple) languages
      • Language development is similar everywhere
        • Similar stages
typical language development
Typical language development

6 Months

  • Responds to his name
  • Responds to human voices without visual cues by turning his head and eyes
  • Responds appropriately to friendly and angry tones
typical language development1
Typical language development

12 Months

  • Uses one or more words with meaning (this may be a fragment of a word)
  • Understands simple instructions, especially if vocal or physical cues are given
  • Practices inflection
  • Is aware of the social value of speech
typical language development2
Typical language development

18 Months

  • Has vocabulary of approximately 5-20 words
  • Vocabulary made up chiefly of nouns
  • Some echolalia (repeating a word or phrase over and over)
  • Is able to follow simple commands
typical language development3
Typical language development

24 Months

  • Can name a number of objects common to his surroundings
  • Is able to use at least two prepositions
  • Combines words into a short sentence
  • Vocabulary of approximately 150-300 words
  • Volume and pitch of voice not yet well-controlled
typical language development4
Typical language development

36 Months

  • Use pronouns I, you, me correctly
  • Is using some plurals and past tenses
  • Knows at least three prepositions
  • Handles three word sentences easily
  • Has in the neighborhood of 900-1000 words
  • About 90% of what child says should be intelligible
  • Verbs begin to predominate
in the beginning

and the womb

In the beginning…
  • Prelinguistic communication
  • We experience language before we’re even born

What was that?

You’re

mumbling.

  • Normal human language uses sounds between 100 and 4000 Hz
  • Sound travels through skin and fluids too
    • In the womb, sounds up to 1000 Hz
      • Can’t hear individual words
      • But can hear:
      • Intonation, durations, rhythm, stress
in the beginning1

and the womb

In the beginning…
  • Prelinguistic communication
  • We experience language before we’re even born
  • Mahler (mid 80’s, in France)
  • 4 day old babies
  • Nonnutritive sucking method
  • Played French or Russian
  • Sucking pattern changed if language was switched
  • Sucking pattern didn’t change if language wasn’t switched
  • Babies knew (something about) the languages
in the beginning2

Fetal heart monitor

and the womb

In the beginning…
  • Prelinguistic communication
  • We experience language before we’re even born
  • DeCasper, et al (1994)
in the beginning3

and the womb

In the beginning…
  • Prelinguistic communication
  • We experience language before we’re even born
  • DeCasper, et al (1994)

Fetal heart monitor

  • Had mothers read stories everyday to fetuses during 34-38 weeks of pregnancy
  • After 38th week, two stories were played to the fetuses (but mom couldn’t hear it)
  • Same story
  • Different story
in the beginning4

and the womb

In the beginning…
  • Prelinguistic communication
  • We experience language before we’re even born
  • DeCasper, et al (1994)

Fetal heart monitor

  • Had mothers read stories everyday to fetuses during 34-38 weeks of pregnancy
  • After 38th week, two stories were played to the fetuses (but mom couldn’t hear it)
  • Same story
  • Different story
in the beginning5

and the womb

In the beginning…
  • Prelinguistic communication
  • We experience language before we’re even born
  • DeCasper, et al (1994)
  • Had mothers read stories everyday to fetuses during 34-38 weeks of pregnancy
  • After 38th week, two stories were played to the fetuses (but mom couldn’t hear it)

Fetal heart monitor

Decreased fetal

heart-rate

  • Same story
  • Different story
  • Baby learned something about the story
the early days
The early days
  • After birth
  • Prelinguistic communication
  • Child-directed speech (motherese)
  • Phonological differences are key
    • Higher in pitch
    • More variable in pitch
    • More exaggerated intonation
  • All may help to orient and maintain attention of infant
  • May help “bootstrap” later learning
the early days1
The early days
  • After birth
  • Prelinguistic communication
  • Early “conversations”
  • Turn taking behaviors
    • From the movie - breast feeding “conversations”
  • Parents interpret infant’s vocalizations as having meaning (also from the movie, Snow’s work)
the early days phonology

100

% /ba/

0

1 ... 3 … 5 … 7

The early days: phonology
  • Eimas et al, (1971)
    • Categorical perception in infants (1 month olds)

Sharp phoneme boundary

Young infants can distinguish different phonemes

the early days phonology1
The early days: phonology
  • A number of studies suggest that very young infants can perceive between a number of phonemic distinctions (e.g., Kuhl & Meltzhoff, 1997)
    • Not limited to their language context
    • However, as they age/experience their context language the ability to perceive some of these distinctions are lost (~10 to 12 months)
  • Categorical perception in infants
  • Nature/nurture debate:
    • Are humans “pre-programmed” to distinguish speech sounds?
the early days phonology2

We’re listening

1 ... 3 … 5 … 7

The early days: phonology
  • Eimas et al, (1971)
    • Categorical perception in infants (1 month olds)

100

Sharp phoneme boundary

Chinchillas do it too!

Kuhl and Miller (1975)

% /ba/

Are they “pre-programmed to perceive human speech?

0

prelinguistic communication
Prelinguistic communication
  • Prelinguistic gestures (around 8 months)
  • Demonstration that the infant is trying to communicate in some way
    • e.g., pointing behaviors
  • Criteria
    • Waiting
    • Persistence
    • Development of alternative plans
early speech production
Early speech production
  • Vocal track differences

Infant

Adult

  • Infants vocal tracts are smaller, and initially shaped differently
  • The infant’s tongue fills the entire mouth, reducing the range of movement
  • As the facial skeleton grows, the range for movement increases (which probably contributes to the increased variety of sounds infants start to produce)
  • May be (in part) why production lags behind comprehension
early speech production1
Early speech production
  • The progression of cooing and babbling follows a universal pattern.
  • Role of both nature and nurture
    • Nature/Biology plays an important role in theemergence of cooing & babbling.
    • The form of the child’s vocalization is also affected by the linguistic environment.
early speech production2
Early speech production
  • 6 - 8 weeks: cooing
  • 4 - 6 months: babbling
  • The progression of cooing and babbling follows a universal pattern.
    • Babies, until around 6 months old, can produce sounds/phonemes that their parents cannot produce or distinguish
  • Clear consonants and vowels are produced
    • “da”, “gi”
early speech production3
Early speech production
  • 6 - 8 weeks: cooing
  • 4 - 6 months: babbling
  • The progression of cooing and babbling follows a universal pattern.
    • Babies, until around 6 months old, can produce sounds/phonemes that their parents cannot produce or distinguish
  • 6 - 7 months: Reduplicated babbling
    • “dada”, “gigi”
early speech production4
Early speech production
  • 6 - 8 weeks: cooing
  • 4 - 6 months: babbling
  • The progression of cooing and babbling follows a universal pattern.
    • Babies, until around 6 months old, can produce sounds/phonemes that their parents cannot produce or distinguish
  • 6 - 7 months: Reduplicated babbling
  • 8 - 9 months: CVC clusters may appear
    • “bod”, “tat”
early speech production5
Early speech production
  • The progression of cooing and babbling follows a universal pattern.
    • Babies, until around 6 months old, can produce sounds/phonemes that their parents cannot produce or distinguish
  • 10 or 11 months: Variegated babbling
    • Combining “incomprehensible words”
      • “dab gogotah”
    • Intonation patterns
      • May reflect phonological rules of spoken language context
  • By 12 to 14 months some evidence of language specific phonological rules
early speech production6
Early speech production

Of course he said “arf.”

What else did you expect

his first word to be?

language sponges

12 ms first words

2 yrs 200 words

3 yrs 1,000 words

6 yrs 15,000 words

Language Sponges
  • Learning words
  • About 3,000 new words per year, especially in the primary grades
  • As many as 8 new words per day
  • Production typically lags behind comprehension
slide31

Language Sponges

  • Lots of individual differences
  • But there is also a consistent pattern
vocabulary growth
Vocabulary growth
  • Methods used to study this
    • Observational data (60s to present)
      • Diary studies
        • Parents record their kids language development
      • Taped language samples (Roger Brown)
        • Small numbers of children (Eve, Adam, Sarah)
        • Went to home every month made tape recordings
        • Extensive study needed
          • Hard to kids to “say all the words you know” or “say a question”
          • Early phonological production isn’t like adult production, often need to take great care deciding what the child meant
      • Large database CHILDES
        • Many kids, many languages, including children with language difficulties
early speech production7
Early speech production
  • Transition to speech

No. … my fis.

No. My fis!

This is your fis?

Yes, my fis.

Your fis?

Oh, your fish.

early speech production8
Early speech production
  • Transition to speech

This is your fis?

No, … my fis.

  • Can’t hear the difference?
    • Rejects adult saying fis
  • Can’t produce the correct sounds?
    • Sometimes, but evidence suggests not always the case
  • More general process of simplification
    • “frees up” resources for concentrating on other aspects of language learning

Your fis.

No, my fis.

Oh, your fish.

Yes, my fis.

early speech production9
Early speech production
  • Transition to speech
  • Early words
    • Common Phonological processes
      • Reduction
        • Delete sounds from words
      • Coalescence
        • Combine different syllables into one syllable
      • Assimilation
        • Change one sound into a similar sound within the word
      • Reduplication
        • One syllable from a multi-syllabic word is repeated
early speech production10
Early speech production
  • Developed in systematic ways
    • Sometimes simplifications of adult speech
    • Or relate to sounds of the objects
  • Demonstrate
    • Creative, not simply imitation
    • Learned importance of consistency of names
  • First words
    • Around 10-15 months (lots of individual differences)
  • Emergence of systematic, repeated productions of phonologically consistent forms
    • Idiomorphs - personalized words
ad