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Linux Operating system. Introduction to Linux. Chapter 1. Overview. History of Linux GNU history Linux on the desktop F eatures of Linux Windows and Linux NOS comparison O perating system components Linux Architecture Linux Distributions

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  • History of Linux
  • GNU history
  • Linux on the desktop
  • Features of Linux
  • Windows and Linux NOS comparison
  • Operating system components
  • Linux Architecture
  • Linux Distributions
  • Determining Software Requirements for a Linux NOS
  • The Unix operating system was conceived and implemented in 1969 at AT&T's Bell Laboratories in the United States.
  • It was first released in 1971 and was initially entirely written in assembly language. Later, in 1973, Unix was re-written in the programming language C.
  • It was:
      • Simple and well-designed.
      • Written in the C programming language .
      • It allowed easier portability to different computer platforms.
      • The Bell Labs developers named their project “UNIX”
unix on the desktop
Unix on the Desktop
  • UNIX was designed to support multiple users and multitasking.
  • It supports Internet Protocols, Internet runs powerful on UNIX systems.
gnu history
GNU History
  • By the 1980s, Unix was proprietary, which means that it had owners who forced users to buy it, and prevent users from edit the system code.
  • GNU project started by some developers, to write an Unix-like operating system.
  • GNU stands for “GNU's Not Unix”, which is a free operating system.
  • The word “free” in “free software” means freedom, not price.
linus and linux
Linus and Linux
  • LinusTorvalds, a young man studying computer science at the university of Helsinki
  • Thought it would be a good idea to have some sort of freely available academic version of UNIX, and quickly started to code.
  • In 1991, Linux: a Unix-like kernel, was developed by Linus.
  • Linux + GNU software = complete operating system: the GNU/Linux system.
linux on the desktop
Linux on the Desktop

Linux is a collection of software, which includes the


linux on the desktop1
Linux on the Desktop
  • The kernel is the central component of most computer operating systems; it is a bridge between applications and the actual data processing done at the hardware level.
  • The communication between hardware and software components.
features of linux
Features of Linux
  • Free
  • Well documented
  • Customizable
  • Open source
  • Multi-tasking capability
  • Multi-users
  • Multi-level file management
features of linux1
Features of Linux
  • Compatibility on most hardware
  • TCP/IP Networking
  • High level of security
  • Virus free
  • Programming support for many languages
  • GUI support
linux on desktops
Linux on desktops
  • Disadvantages:
  • Some users see it’s more difficult to use than Mac or Windows.
  • Less supported applications when compared with Windows.
windows and linux nos comparison
Windows and Linux NOS Comparison
  • Windows has been marketed as a user-friendly, graphical interface (GUI), desktop operating system.
  • Linux is a very popular choice among system administrators to run their servers.
  • The form factors to choose the NOS are:
    • CLI or GUI.
    • Cost
    • Obtaining the OS
    • Ability to run from a CD
    • Available application software and obtaining application software
    • Virus resistance
    • Security features
    • Supporting multiple users
operating system components
operating system components
  • All operating system software include:
      • Kernel
      • User Interface
      • File System
the kernel
The Kernel
  • Kernel is the most common term for the core of the operating system.
  • It is a small piece of code that is loaded into memory when the computer boots.
  • This computer code contains instructions that allow the kernel to manage hardware devices, memory allocation, system processes, and other programs.
the user interface
The User Interface
  • The UIis the component of the OS that the user interacts with.
  • The UI is like an interpreter, translating user keystrokes, mouse clicks, or other input for the appropriate programs.
  • The UI fall into two general categories: CLI , GUI
  • A graphic user interface (GUI) allows the user to manipulate software using visual objects such as windows, pull-down menus, pointers, and icons.
  • The GUI requires more memory and storage space.
the file system
The File System
  • In a hierarchical file system, files are placed in logical containers that are arranged in an upside-down tree structure.
  • The file system starts at the root of the tree.
  • UNIX and Linux call these containers “directory” and “subdirectory”.
  • Windows and Macintosh OSs use the term "folder" and "subfolder“.
the file system1
The File System
  • There are the three types of file systems:
    • FAT (FAT16, FAT32)
    • NTFS
    • EX2, Ext3
  • Linux systems uses EX2, EX3 or JFS

Linux Architecture

  • The Kernel is the heart of the operating system. Its main functions are:
  • The user does not directly pass commands to the Kernel
  • The Shell handles user interaction with the system and Kernel

Controlling computer resources

التحكم في مصادر الحاسب

Allocating resources to different user

توزيع المصادر حسب متطلبات المستخدم





linux unix cli
  • UNIX and Linux support dozens of user interfaces. The most common are the text-based interfaces called shells.
  • Users type commands that are interpreted by the shell, which in turn relays the user instructions to the operating system and other programs.
  • Commonly used shells include the following:
      • Bourne shell
      • Korn shell
      • Bash shell
      • C shell
      • TC shell
linux unix gui
  • Both UNIX and Linux are capable of running GUIs.
  • Because there are so many different versions of both UNIX and Linux, there are dozens of popular graphical interfaces to choose.
  • UNIX and Linux both rely on the X-Windows System to display the GUI.
linux distributions
Linux Distributions
  • Linux is sometimes referred to as "UNIX Lite".
  • Linux brings the advantages of UNIX to home and small business computers.
  • The following are a few of the most popular types:
    • Red Hat Linux:the older version, the most popular
    • Linux Mandrake:developed as a French-based version of Red Hat
    • Debian GNU/Linux: only built for non-profit uses.
    • Slackware: for advanced users who prefer to use all text-based configuration tools.
  • Selecting a Linux distribution depends on whether the computer will be used as a client or a server, whether or not a GUI interface is required and the experience level of the user .
workstation software and programs
Workstation Software and Programs
  • The X Window System is what comprises the Linux GUI environment.
  • Desktop Environments help a user to customize and control their working environment.
  • The most popular are K Desktop Environment (KDE) and the GNU Network Object Model Environment (GNOME)
  • Office Tools: Corel’s WordPerfect and Sun StarOffice are the top two office suites capable of running on Linux.
  • Audio and visual programs available for Linux include tools for viewing and editing graphics like XV and GIMP.
additional software and programs
Additional Software and Programs
  • There are some programs and software that are essential to add to a Linux system regardless of whether it is configured as a workstation or a server.
  • Text editors are essential for performing any type of maintenance tasks that a user or an administrator may need to do.
  • Some examples of text editors available in Linux are vi or Emacs.
  • Programming tools are very helpful for Linux servers as well to specific users at workstations if they are programmers.
  • Every Linux system relies on a library called the C library (libc).
verifying software compatibility
Verifying Software Compatibility
  • When installing a package, always check and make sure that the operating system supports the package.
  • Generally, any Linux software and package can be installed on any UNIX-like operating system.
  • Check CPU requirements, library requirements, and development tools.