slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Lecture Seven Language Change PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Lecture Seven Language Change

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 23

Lecture Seven Language Change - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 136 Views
  • Uploaded on

Lecture Seven Language Change. Introduction Any language may change with time passing, but the change does not happen overnight. Examples: old English, middle English and modern English; ancient Chinese and modern Chinese The changes can be found in different aspects of the language.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Lecture Seven Language Change' - irma


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1
Lecture Seven

Language Change

slide2
Introduction
  • Any language may change with time passing, but the change does not happen overnight.
  • Examples: old English, middle English and modern English; ancient Chinese and modern Chinese
  • The changes can be found in different aspects of the language.
slide3
Change in pronunciation
  • Examples of changes between old English and modern English

Old English Modern English

stan [sta:n] stone [st] ham [ha:m] home [hm]

wrat [ra:t] wrote [rt]

rad [ra:d] rode [rd]

slide4
Examples of changes between middle English and modern English

Middle English Modern English

mice [m:s] mice [mais]

mouse [m:s] mouse [maus]

broke [br:k] broke [brk]

  • Changes in pronunciation between the 16th and 17th century standard English and the modern English. (Difference in pronunciation between British English and American English, see Zhou, 1995, pp. 61-68)
slide5
Morphological and syntactic change

1. Change in “agreement” rule

Whan that Aprille with his shoures sooth …

(When that April with his showers sweet …)

2. Change in negative rule

I love thee not.

He saw you not.

slide6
3. Process of simplification

Changes reflected in case and gender.

Old English Middle English Modern English

ure / urum oure our

4. Loss of inflections

Old English Modern English

stan / slanas stone / stones

gear / gear year / years

slide7
IV. Vocabulary change

1. Addition of new words

A. Compounding

Example 1:

butter + fly = butterfly!

+=

slide8
Example 2:

Dog + House = Doghouse!

+ =

(http://www.manatee.k12.fl.us/sites/elementary/palmasola/compoundwords.htm)

  • More examples: newspaper, pigtail, sandstorm, ladybug, thumbnail, handbag
slide9
B. Coinage

Zipper让我联想到另外一个绝佳的生造词例子—“Zippo”。1932年美国宾夕法尼亚州的George Blaisdel发明了这种又好看且好用的打火机,他为当时的另一项发明zipper(拉链)所着迷,所以称他的新打火机叫作“Zippo”。这种个人定义的生造词例子层出不穷,很多大公司商标的命名就沿用这一创造性的做法,这些在字典中查不到的英语单词在日常生活中却最为大众所熟知。字典永远收不尽词汇,这是字典的遗憾,却是人类的福音—语言的更新永无止境。

slide10
C. Clipped words

gym — gymnasium

expo — exposition

memo — memorandum

disco — discotheque

burger — hamburger

dozer — bulldozer

quake — earthquake

fridge — refrigerator

script — prescription

D. Blending

smog — smoke + fog

motel — motor + hotel

brunch — breakfast + lunch

camcorder — camera + recorder

comsat — communication + satellite

videophone — video + telephone

slide11
E. Acronyms

CBS — Columbia Broadcasting System

ISBN — International Standard Book Number

IT — information technology

CAD — computer assisted design

WTO — World Trade Organization

IDD — international direct dialing

APEC [eipek] — Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation

AIDS [eidz] — Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

UNESCO [ju:nesk] — United Nations Educational

Scientific and Cultural Organization

SARS [sa:s] — Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

CELEA [si:li] — China English Language Education

Association (web: elt-china.org)

eftpos [eftps] — electronic funds transfer

at the point of sale

slide12
F. Back-formation

edit editor

hawk hawker

beg beggar

baby-sit baby-sitter

butch butcher

slide16
Loss of words
  • Evidence of loss of words from Shakespeare’s works

beseem to be suitable

wot to know

gyve a fetter

wherefore why

  • Causes of loss of words: discontinuation of the objects. e.g. soap flakes, wash board, (in Chinese: 洋油, 洋火, 洋钉)
3 semantic change
3. Semantic change

A. Widening of meaning

slide20
V. Some recent trends

1. Becoming more informal

This trend is welcomed by people.

2. Influence coming from American English

3. Influence from science and technology

Space travel

Computer and internet language

Ecology

slide21
Causes of language change

1. Rapid development of science and technology

2. Social and political changes

3. Women’s liberation movements

4. Children’s grammar is never exactly like that of

the adult community.

5. Economy of memory, grammar simplification

plural of “cow” is “cows”, instead of “kine”

plural of “curriculum” is “curriculums”, instead of “curricula”

plural of “dwarf” is “dwarfs”, instead of “dwarves”

“cheap” used as an adverb

slide22
References

Dai, W. D & He, Z. X. (2002). A new concise course on linguistics for students of English. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press.

Zhou, Q. J. (1995). Difference in pronunciation between GA & GB. The Publication of FLRASTAC, collective issue of 1995, 61-68.

Task

Do the following as written exercise:

  • With examples, give some plausible explanations

for linguistic change.