Climate
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Climate. Weather. environmental conditions that occur at a particular place at a particular time. temperature, air pressure, cloud cover, and precipitation. effects of weather are immediate and obvious. Example.

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Weather
Weather

  • environmental conditions that occur at a particular place at a particular time.

  • temperature, air pressure, cloud cover, and precipitation.

  • effects of weather are immediate and obvious.


Example
Example

A description you may hear on the news or weather network would contain a combination of the above. The weather on a summer day: a high of 25°C, sunny with cloud cover, with a 40% chance of rain, wind from the west at 15 km/h and a relative humidity of 40%.


Climate1
Climate

  • Climate is the usual pattern of weather in a region over a long period of time.

  • average monthly temperatures and precipitation, average wind speed and direction, etc.

  • Video


Factors affecting climate
Factors Affecting Climate

  • Latitude

  • Elevation

  • the air masses that flow over the area

  • the area’s nearness to large bodies of water


The sun
The Sun

  • Weather and climate depend on amount of energy in a region.

  • Almost all energy on Earth is initially solar radiation

  • Life as we know it depends on solar radiation.

  • Different regions on Earth’s surface receive different amounts of solar radiation.


Solar radiation
Solar Radiation

  • Some that strikes Earth is absorbed by Earth’s surface.

  • Converted to thermal energy in everything it touches.

  • Thermal energy is the total kinetic energy of the particles in a substance.


Climate
Heat

  • A substance at a high temperature has more thermal energy than the same substance at a lower temperature.

  • Heat flows from a substance at a high temperature to one at a lower temperature.

  • A tiny amount of the solar radiation is converted to chemical energy through photosynthesis in plants.


Climate
In general, regions at or near the equator receive more solar radiation per square metre than regions closer to the poles do.


Components of the earth
Components of the Earth solar radiation per square metre than regions closer to the poles do.


Biosphere
Biosphere solar radiation per square metre than regions closer to the poles do.

Plants and animals vary gases in the atmosphere.


Atmosphere
Atmosphere solar radiation per square metre than regions closer to the poles do.

  • 600 km high

  • Composition at Earth’s Surface:

    • 78% Nitrogen

    • 21% Oxygen

    • 1% argon, carbon dioxide, helium, hydrogen, ozone

    • Some water vapour and dust

  • Traps solar Energy

  • Shields the planet from UV radiation


Lithosphere
Lithosphere solar radiation per square metre than regions closer to the poles do.

  • Earth’s Crust

  • Absorbs higher energy radiation, converts it to thermal energy, emits it back.


Ice and hydrosphere
Ice and Hydrosphere solar radiation per square metre than regions closer to the poles do.

  • Ice reflects solar rays, resulting in a cooler temperature than there normally would be.

  • Types of ice:

    • Sea Ice (pack ice)– in the Arctic

    • Land Ice (ice sheets) – in the Antarctic, Greenland

    • Glaciers – ice fields in mountains

    • Icebergs – broken sections of glaciers that are floating in the ocean.


Climatograph lab
Climatograph solar radiation per square metre than regions closer to the poles do. Lab

  • Complete lab in groups of two.