Májbetegségek. Normális máj in situ. This is the external surface of a normal liver. The color is brown and the surface is smooth. A normal liver is about 1200 to 1600 grams.
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This is the external surface of a normal liver. The color is brown and the surface is smooth. A normal liver is about 1200 to 1600 grams.
The cut surface of a normal liver has a brown color. Near the hilum here, note the portal vein carrying blood to the liver,
Liver is divided histologically into lobules. The center of the lobule is the central vein. At the periphery of the lobule are portal triads. Functionally, the liver can be divided into three zones, based upon oxygen supply. Zone 1 encircles the portal tracts where the oxygenated blood from hepatic arteries enters. Zone 3 is located around central veins, where oxygenation is poor. Zone 2 is located in between
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)
This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles.
350 million long-term carriers worldwide (75% Ázsia és Afrika)
25-40% will die due to hepatitis B or related complications1
Up to 2 million die each year from HBV infection2, making it the 9th leading cause of death worldwide3
Center for DiseaseControl
Különböző kombinált kezelések hatékonysága: a 48-hetes Interferon + Ribaflavin (vírus replikáció gátló szer) hatékonysága látszik legjobbnak
A Hepatitis C különböző fenotípusainak kezelési hatékonysága nem egyforma: a 48 hetes interferon-ribaflavin látszik legjobbnak
ANA (antinuclearis antitest),
SMA (smooth muscle antibody,
ANCA (antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody)
SLA: soluble liver antigen
The yellowish-green accumulations of pigment seen here are bile. Most often this is due to extrahepatic biliary tract obstruction. However, bile may also accumulate in liver (called cholestasis) when there is hepatocyte injury
This liver is slightly enlarged and has a pale yellow appearance, seen both on the capsule and cut surface. This uniform change is consistent with fatty metamorphosis (fatty change) Steathosis
This is the histologic appearance of hepatic fatty change. The lipid accumulates in the hepatocytes as vacuoles.
Gyógyszerek és más anyagok biotranszformációja
Túlérzékenység= hapten a májsejthez kötődik és Antigénné válik, ellene antitest képződik
The dark brown color of the liver, as well as the pancreas (bottom center) and lymph nodes (bottom right) on sectioning is due to extensive iron deposition
Berlini kék festés mutatja a vaslerakódást a már cirrhotikus májban haemochromatosisban szenvedő betegnél
Ongoing liver damage with liver cell necrosis followed by fibrosis and hepatocyte regeneration results in cirrhosis. This produces a nodular, firm liver. The nodules seen here are larger than 3 mm and, hence, this is an example of "macronodular" cirrhosis.
This is an example of a micronodular cirrhosis. The regenerative nodules are quite small, averaging less than 3 mm in size. The most common cause for this is chronic alcoholism.
Here is another example of micronodular cirrhosis. Note that the liver also has a yellowish hue, indicating that fatty change (also caused by alcoholism) is present.
5-6 pont (ChildA)= egyéves túlélés, 100%
7-9 pont (ChildB) egyéves túlélés, 85%
10-15 pont (Child C) egyéves túlélés, 35%
Varices are seen here in the lower esophagus as linear blue dilated veins. There is hemorrhage around one of them.
The various configurations of the abdominal silhouette. In all silhouettes, X is te xiphoid process, U is the umbilicus, and P is the pubis. (A) The configuration of the abdomen is obesity or gaseous distension: the umbilicus is inverted. (B) The configuration in ascites: the umbilicus is everted. (C) The scaphoid (boat-shaped) configuration of slender people. (D) The configuration in the presence of a lower abdominal mass, a distended bladder for example. (E) The configuration in the presence of an upper abdominal mass, an enlarged liver, for example
The configuration of the flanks in obesity (A) contrasted with that in distenesion from ascites or gas (B).
The malignant cells of this hepatocellular carcinoma (seen mostly on the right) are well differentiated and interdigitate with normal, larger hepatocytes (seen mostly at the left).
The carcinoma at the left has a glandular appearance that is most consistent with a cholangiocarcinoma.